International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL <p>The aim of the research journal is to promote research activities and publish original and quality research work in different fields of education. IJITL is providing a platform for the researchers, academicians, professionals, practitioners and students to impart and share knowledge in the form of research papers, case studies and book reviews.</p> en-US <p>IJITL by Department of Education, IIUI is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. Based on a work at www.iiu.edu.pk. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at Licensing and Copyright. All articles published by IJITL are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. This permits anyone to copy, redistribute, transmit and adapt the work provided the original work and source is appropriately cited as specified by the Creative Commons Attribution License.The journal allows readers to freely read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and to use them for any other lawful purpose. Once published the copyrights are retained with the Journal.</p><p> <img src="/ojs/public/site/images/humairaakram/CCNC1.png" alt="" /></p><p><span>This work is licensed under a <a title="Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International</a></span></p> editor.ijitl@iiu.edu.pk (Prof. Dr. Samina Malik) junaid.azhar@iiu.edu.pk (Junaid Azhar) Fri, 30 Jun 2023 18:30:02 +0500 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Effect on Teaching and Learning: Evidence from an Emerging Economy http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2570 <p>This study examined the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and the effect of CSR initiatives on teaching and learning from teachers, students, and heads' perspectives. The study relied on in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions to obtain data. The participating schools were selected through a stratified sampling technique, with the individual respondents purposively sampled. Interviews and discussions were tape-recorded and subsequently transcribed, sorted to identify central and recurrent themes in the data. The study showed that corporate bodies have contributed immensely to the teaching and learning processes through improved school infrastructural facilities. It also found that CSR activities have enhanced teaching and learning processes. Thus, resulting in improved quality of teaching delivery, students' academic performance and beneficiary schools' societal status. The findings, however, focused mainly on the perspectives of teachers, students, and heads of schools. The findings are expected to maximize the effective deployment of CSR resources in education service and infrastructure provision in less-developed countries. The results are expected to engender further debate among corporations and other relevant stakeholders on the need for concerted efforts in tackling the school infrastructure deficit prevalent in less-developed nations. This study is one of its kinds on the effect of CSR initiatives on teaching and learning from direct beneficiaries' perspectives within the African context. This study also provides evidence of the need for a deliberate effort to encourage private-sector investment in school infrastructure.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>Corporate Social Responsibility, Education financing, Emerging Economy, Teaching and Learning</em></p> Karim Fusheini, Martin Morgan Tuuli, Hussein Salia Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2570 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 15:32:52 +0500 Long Term Occasional Teaching and Mindfulness within the Pandemic http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2717 <p>This reflection focuses upon entry into the Ontario (Canada) teaching profession as a Long-Term Occasional (LTO) teacher who is a substitute for a permanent teacher on leave. The experiences within a grade four class during the Coronavirus pandemic are detailed herein. By implementing mindfulness into the curriculum, continuity and stability emerged for students, to reset every day during the Pandemic. In supporting the well-being of the whole student (which was initially sparked by COVID-19), its importance throughout all parts of learning was prominent. Navigating the role as an LTO (substitute) teacher during a Pandemic stimulated teachers and students, as learning how to teach in remote and in-person environments required a flexible and aware educator who was mindful. Support for the whole learner during a time was unprecedented and worrisome for many. As a result, mindfulness sessions supported students’ overall well-being and ensured that they were beginning their day with a clear, calm, and open mindset. This research has been cathartic and further developed a teaching philosophy that aligns itself with the needs for TFCL (Twenty-First Century Learners).</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>Long-Term Occasional Teaching, Mindfulness, Pandemic</em></p> Sarah Schouten, Prof. Dr. Thomas Ryan Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2717 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 15:37:16 +0500 Drivers and Demand for Shadow Education: A Case Study of Islamabad-Pakistan http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2508 <p>Shadow education is a term which metaphorically denotes private tuition. The constitution of Pakistan provides for free education for children; however, their dependents (parents) along with children still pay a cost while paying fee for additionally purchased private tuition lessons. This research aims to understand the demand drivers of shadow education and its associated implicit and explicit costs in the federal capital city of Pakistan, Islamabad. The research methodology consisted of qualitative methods, semi-structured interviews, maximum variation sampling, and thematic data analysis. Parents who sent their children to both public and private schools and also opted for private tuition were considered as primary respondents. Findings showed an overall trust deficit among parents regarding public schools, classroom environment, and teachers’ attitude among which compelled them to invest in private tuition. Whereas parents who enrolled children in private schools indicated themselves as economically stable, and they had wilfully opted for private tuition for the purpose of enrichment of children learning outcomes. The differencing background between rich and poor parents showed that shadow education exacerbates social and economic inequality. In addition to that, it was also revealed shadow education carries explicit (tangible) and implicit (intangible) costs, which must be reviewed in light of article 25A of the constitution of Pakistan.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong>: </strong><em>Education, shadow education, private tuition, educational inequality, public education.</em></p> Sajjad Yousaf, Usman Ahmad, Muhammad Ehtisham Noor Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2508 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 15:47:14 +0500 Scrutinizing Outcome Assessment of Outcome-based Education using Q-OBE in Engineering Education http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2609 <p>Educational institutions constantly strive to meet accreditation requirements which demand continuous improvement in the quality of education. As a consequence, there has been an active shift in strategizing pedagogical processes towards an outcome-based approach of learning. To effectively implement the Outcome Based Education (OBE) framework in Pakistan, universities need to ensure that the OBE system is fully understandable to the faculty members and students; confirm the implementation of the OBE system according to the guidelines set forth by the Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC); and acquire the accreditation of engineering programs, formalized through the Washington Accord and governed by the PEC. A key challenge in implementing OBE is in its assessment process. Education programs have to compute students’ attainment of learning outcomes as measured by multiple courses offered within each program. Q-OBE was implemented to automate the process of assessment and to produce detailed reporting of each student’s aggregated outcomes in a visually effective format. Q-OBE takes the assessment marks as the input and accurately tracks how well the students attain the intended learning outcomes in terms of both Course Learning Outcomes (CLOs) and Program Learning Outcomes (PLOs). This study reports on the implementation of Q-OBE in engineering education. The main aim is to show how Q-OBE, a GUI-based software, automates calculating students’ outcomes incorporating both CLOs and PLOs achievements. An attempt has also been made to make explicit the OBE implementation via well-documented and reliable procedures across the institutions.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Outcome Based Education (OBE), Assessment and Evaluation, Automation System, Course Learning Outcome (CLO), Program Learning Outcome (PLO)</em></p> Sania Bhatti, Mariam Memon, Areej Fatemah Meghji Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2609 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 15:51:40 +0500 Scope of E-Portfolio Based Assessment Tool: Perceptions and Practices of ELT Practitioners in Pakistan http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2539 <p>The goal of conducting this study waso acquire the perceptions and practices of ELT practitioners to finalize the scope of e-portfolio based assessment in the country. This study included a survey research of 54 participants (EL teachers K-6) that were chosen through simple random sampling technique. The theoretical framework of the study was Kirkpatrick’s assessment theory that has been used to achieve the objectives and analyze the results of the study. The data were collected by maintaining the research ethical decorum. The results claimed that the positive perceptions of e-portfolio had an average score of 3.07 while supportive practices and utility had an average rating of 2.95. The results provided that Pakistani English language teachers have positive perceptions regarding electronic portfolios. Thus, there is a high scope of implementing e-portfolios for the language assessment. It was recommended to obtain further clarification of ideas and promote training in the particular domain.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong>: <em>E-portfolios, EL Teachers, Assessment, ELT Practitioners</em></p> Yaghsha Sahar, Muhammad Shahbaz Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2539 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 16:00:27 +0500 A Study of Secondary School Students’ Attitude Towards Mathematics in Tehsil Taxila http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2388 <p>Students' progress in mathematics is determined by their attitude toward Mathematics. A positive attitude toward a subject is a prerequisite for success in any subject. This is also true in mathematics, particularly when girls are compared to boys. This study was based on a survey of secondary school students about their attitudes towards Mathematics. This research was conducted to investigate the secondary school students’ attitude towards Mathematics. &nbsp;The population included the (<em>N</em>= 1562) students of both genders. This study was conducted on the sample of 368 students (Male=184 &amp; Female = 184) of secondary schools from tehsil Taxila. Mathematics Attitude scale was used to collect the data. The attitude scale consists of 19 items based on 4 factors. The overall reliability of questionnaire (&nbsp;=0.7452) was found appropriate. A gender wise analysis of Mathematics attitude comparison showed that female students have high anxiety and fear level as compared to male students. Finally, the current study found that females at secondary level have a lower attitude toward mathematics as compared to than males.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Mathematics Education, Students Attitude, STEM Education, Mathematics Anxiety</em></p> Dr. Tooba Saleem, Dr. Rukhsana Durrani , Mahwish Malik Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2388 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 16:06:46 +0500