International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) <p>The aim of the research journal is to promote research activities and publish original and quality research work in different fields of education. IJITL intends to provide a platform for the researchers, academicians, professional, practitioners and students to impart and share knowledge in the form of research papers, case studies and book reviews.&nbsp;</p> en-US <p>IJITL by Department of Education, IIUI is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. Based on a work at Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at Licensing and Copyright. All articles published by IJITL are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. This permits anyone to copy, redistribute, transmit and adapt the work provided the original work and source is appropriately cited as specified by the Creative Commons Attribution License.The journal allows readers to freely read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and to use them for any other lawful purpose. Once published the copyrights are retained with the Journal.</p><p> <img src="/ojs/public/site/images/humairaakram/CCNC1.png" alt="" /></p><p><span>This work is licensed under a <a title="Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International" href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International</a></span></p> (Prof. Dr. Samina Malik) (Sajid Amir Shah) Sun, 12 Jan 2020 14:49:25 +0500 OJS 60 The Development of Scientific Creativity Test for Grade Twelve Chemistry Students <p>This study aimed to develop a creativity test for the science grade 12<sup>th</sup> chemistry students. The test includes five factors, i.e. Sensitivity to problem, fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration &amp; redefinition. The developed test administered to grade 12 students in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan (n=80). The reliability coefficient of this test was estimated at 0.87 by passing through the test-retest method. To calculate the test reliability the same developed test was administered twice to the same group within a proper interval of time. The recorded scores were correlated through SPSS-17. The coefficient value (<em>r</em>-0.87) provided measure of stability. Rubrics are the standardized marking scheme for assessing student outcomes and performances of the assigned task. Therefore, rubrics were used for scoring of items. The entire procedure seized 25 days. The creativity test was also checked by experts. The experts were those who had command over scientific creativity. The analysis was accomplished to substantiate and check on item discrimination, internal consistency, and agreement between scores. The analysis of the data showed adequate reliability and validity.</p><p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Creativity, Scientific Creativity Tests (SCT), Rubrics</em></p> Umar Khitab, Amir Zaman, Abdul Ghaffar Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) Sun, 12 Jan 2020 14:49:24 +0500 Transforming Science Education through Digital Technology <p>Science teaching and learning has always been the attention of the researchers. Learning science became significant through experiential integrations. The learning experiences for science education can become rich if virtual reality (VR) technology is infused with learning. The purpose of the study was to measure the improvement in scores and interest of the learners towards science using VR science videos. The sample consisted of 80 students of which 40 students were in control group in which 20 students were 4<sup>th</sup> graders and 20 students were from 7<sup>th</sup> graders. The other 40 studnets were in experimental group in which 20 students were 4<sup>th</sup> graders and 20 students were 7<sup>th</sup> graders. Questionnaire was administered to measure the interest of the learners. A pretest-posttest experimental research design was used. The interest questionnaire along with pretest was administered before VR intervention and a posttest along with interest questionnaire was administered after VR intervention. The results reflected the positive impact of the treatment. The results showed students’ improved scores and interest towards science for 4<sup>th</sup> as well as 7<sup>th</sup> graders. It is recommended to use VR for the teaching and learning of science concepts to make positive students’ interest towards science.</p><p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><strong> </strong><em>Virtual Reality, Visualization, Imagination, Science Education</em><em> </em></p> Farkhunda Rasheed Chaudhary, Sidra Khushnood Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) Sun, 12 Jan 2020 14:49:25 +0500 Cultural Dissemination: A Case Study of English Text Books at Primary Level in Pakistan <p>Textbooks act as an embodiment of education policy and carry great significance in classroom teaching. The content of these discourses reflects the existing cultural, religious or social norms of a country and acts as a means to exercise power of the dominant groups. The present investigation focuses to unmask prevalent cultural and social ideologies in the literary discourses of Pakistani English primary textbooks of the four provinces (Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). The analysis pertains to two levels: content analysis to quantify cultural themes and discourse analysis to validate the results and gain insight into the data by using three-dimensional Critical Discourse Analysis framework by Norman Fairclough. The findings of the study highlight significant disproportion of cultural representations in the data. The results reflect embodiment of dominant provincial ideologies and advocate a revision of curriculum and education policy for serving wider educational needs in the local and international context. </p><p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> <em>Cultural messages, Ideology, English Textbooks, Primary Education</em></p> Shazia Dar, Farzana Masroor Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) Sun, 12 Jan 2020 14:49:25 +0500 Reflections on Children Educational Labour <p>In a school, there are multiplicity of courses and learning activities that a school child is going to undertake under a particular curriculum. Subject based curriculum is dominant throughout the world. Generally, a school curriculum contains courses like Languages, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies etc. along with their notebooks and/or workbooks. Besides, students carry out their homework mostly of every subject on daily basis. In addition, in a school assembly, students have to learn prayers, Quranic verses, parts of body, mathematical tables etc. Besides schools, many children go to madrassah (religious school) after school hours. The amount of these activities revealed that students have to tackle excessive academic activities and could be rightly termed as ‘educational labour.’ The investigation is directed to examine the issue of educational labour. It was addressed through qualitative-phenomenological approach. The purposively selected participants were principals and teachers of public and private schools along with six PhD Education scholars. Interviews were employed for collecting respondents’ views. The data were analyzed through establishing codes and themes. The upshots of the inquiry affirmed that students are facing with enormous educational load in the forms of diverse subjects, enormous content, diverse academic practices, homework and frequent classroom tests along with other non-formal trainings. The respondents recommended that there may be reduction, integration or innovation of courses. Likewise, students may maintain either workbooks or notebooks. In addition, there should be no or short and important homework and adequate physical activities.</p><p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Curriculum, Educational Labour, Subject Based Curriculum, overloaded curriculum, Integrated Curriculum </em></p> Abdul Ghaffar, Amir Zaman, Asfandeyar Fida Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) Sun, 12 Jan 2020 14:49:25 +0500 Problems of University Students in Speaking English during Classroom Participation <p>Students’ academic achievement is directly related to their active classroom participation. They learn their lesson actively, discuss their lecture with their peers and teachers, but speaking English language becomes the hurdle in their active participation. So, this study was designed to analyze the problems of the university students in classroom participation. The objectives of the study were; to find out the problems of university students in speaking English during classroom participation, and to enlist factors creating problems for students in speaking English during classroom participation. The study was descriptive in nature. The population of the study was all enrolled students of the Islamia University Bahawalpur. 400 students were selected by the researchers as the sample of study. Questionnaire was used to collect the data from selected sample. SPSS was used to calculate the percentage and mean score of the collected data. Findings of the study indicated that students feel problem because of insufficient vocabulary, grammar illiteracy, lack of confidence and environment does not support them for classroom participation. Furthermore, results of the study recommend that there must be extra classes for students to give them opportunity to speak English language, and there must be a rule that students must speak English language otherwise they will have to pay fine. </p><p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> English Language, Speaking Problems, Classroom Participation, University Level</em></p> Syeda Sidra Nosheen, Muzammila Akram, Muhammad Javed Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) Sun, 12 Jan 2020 14:49:25 +0500 Perceptions of Science Teachers Regarding Capacity Building Teachers Training Programme in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa <p>The purpose of this study was to analyze the perceptions of science teachers regarding Capacity Building Science Teachers Training Programme (CBSTTP) conducted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, its content, methodology and usability of the course with reference to real classroom working environment. Objectives of the study were to find out efficacy of the programme as per requirements of teaching science syllabus, usability of the knowledge and skills learned in the course, and to know views of the course participants regarding the importance of the course contents and teaching methodologies. Design of the study was descriptive in nature. Sample of the study consisted of the 50 teachers who had attended two week science teacher’s capacity building training in May 2009 in District Nowshera. A self-developed questionnaire was used for the collection of data. The responses were tabulated and analyzed by using the Chi-square test. Findings indicated that course participants were satisfied with the standard of course; standard of teaching methodology in the course, objectives of the course, providing awareness to teachers and removing content related teaching difficulties. The study recommended that Capacity Building Science Teachers Training Programme may be conducted regularly on quarterly basis. The contents of the Training Programme may be enriched. More teachers may be detailed for the training programme.<strong></strong></p><p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong>: </strong><em>Science Teachers, Capacity Building, Teachers Training Programme, Teachers’ Perceptions</em></p> Muhammad Naqeeb ul Khalil Shaheen, Shafqat Ullah, Nazir Haider Shah Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0500 Difficulties faced by Students in Adopting Arabic Language as Medium of Instruction in International Islamic University Islamabad <p>The study was conducted to investigate the difficulties faced by students in adopting Arabic language as medium of instruction for the subject of Islamic Studies at International Islamic University Islamabad. The nature of study was descriptive. The objectives of the study were to; find out the proficiency level of students in Arabic language, find out the difficulties faced by students in adopting Arabic language as medium of instruction and to give recommendations to address the difficulties faced by students in adopting Arabic language as medium of instruction. The study was delimited to the Faculty of Usuluddin. Students of BS Usuluddin were the population of the study. Gender based proportionate random sampling technique was used to select the sample of 300 students, comprising 60 students from each of the five departments. Close ended questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using percentage, mean score and Chi-square. Results showed that Pakistani students are not natively Arabic speaker and they do not speak Arabic at home. All the statements of study were highly significant and students feel difficulties in basic language learning skills like reading, writing, speaking, pronunciation and Arabic grammar rules. The study recommended to minimize the difficulties of reading Arabic, vocabulary and understanding Arabic language. Students should read Arabic magazine, newspaper and articles in Arabic and teaching of Arabic should start from simple structure of sentence and to give examples from their daily life, and students may be encouraged to learn Arabic language.</p><p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>Arabic Language, Medium of Instruction, Islamic Studies</em><strong></strong></p> Humera Perveen, Muhammad Arshad Dahar Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0500 Innovative Pedagogy That Matters in Today’s World <p>Pedagogy as a science examines the mechanisms through which society can actively transfer its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to the next, from one side, and enable the development of the individual from the other. There has been major shift in curriculum, learners’ demands and teaching learning setup. The paradigm shift from teaching to learning demands innovation in every field of education generally and in pedagogy specifically. Digital technologies have also changed the traditional pedagogical paradigm, bypassing the educators to reach the students directly and revolutionize their learning experiences. To meet 21<sup>st</sup> century expectations, educators therefore need to depart from the ideas and pedagogies of yesterday and become bold advocates to develop the sorts of learning dispositions needed for our learners and their work future. Innovation is fundamental, in this manner, and it must reach directly into the teaching methods around the globe. Pedagogical expertise is the center of teachers’ professionalism and it is required to be developed.</p><p>Pedagogical innovation is a pedagogical way, or is implementation of new/different ways in the process of teaching and learning that promotes meaningful learning among the learners. Pedagogy is both Knowledge (ways of looking at) and Action (the decision-making and designs shaping the interactions of teaching and learning in classroom practice). In practice, the new pedagogy asks us to change what students do from listening and reading to active participation, replace or supplement traditional expository texts by new texts that structure student activities.</p><p>Different innovative pedagogical approaches have different purposes and they create different learning experiences. Blended Learning, Game-Based Learning, Cloud Computing, Adaptive Learning, Artificial Intelligence And Learning Assistant, Learning Analytics, Micro Learning, Critical Digital Literacy, Teaching Through Audiovisual Media, Block Chain, Inverted/Flipped Classroom, Computational Thinking, Experiential Learning, Embodied Learning, Multi literacies and Discussion-Based Teaching are some of the innovative pedagogies of 21<sup>st</sup> century. Thus Innovative Pedagogy as a science and practice has a responsibility to prepare citizens of the information society who can be inventive, face changes, manage data, and work with knowledge.</p> Editor IJITL Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0500