International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL <p>The aim of the research journal is to promote research activities and publish original and quality research work in different fields of education. IJITL is providing a platform for the researchers, academicians, professionals, practitioners and students to impart and share knowledge in the form of research papers, case studies and book reviews.</p> International Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistan en-US International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) 2664-2247 <p>IJITL by Department of Education, IIUI is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. Based on a work at www.iiu.edu.pk. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at Licensing and Copyright. All articles published by IJITL are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. This permits anyone to copy, redistribute, transmit and adapt the work provided the original work and source is appropriately cited as specified by the Creative Commons Attribution License.The journal allows readers to freely read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and to use them for any other lawful purpose. Once published the copyrights are retained with the Journal.</p><p> <img src="/ojs/public/site/images/humairaakram/CCNC1.png" alt="" /></p><p><span>This work is licensed under a <a title="Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International</a></span></p> Organizational Structure and Job Satisfaction: A Correlational Study of Teaching Faculty at Higher Education Level http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2267 <p>This study investigated the relationship between various components of organizational structure and the job satisfaction of teachers at the higher education level. There are two forms of organizational structure: organic and mechanistic. The novelty of this study is that organizational structure was assessed on a six-point basis including "work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, centralization, decentralization, and formalization". The study was descriptive and correlational. The population included all 22 public universities of Punjab, Pakistan. A sample of 505 faculty members was selected through a two-stage sampling technique, and the response rate was n=408. Two tools were used to collect data: The Organizational Structure Survey (OSS) developed by the researcher, and the experts checked the content validity of the Organizational Structure Survey (OSS). The Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) of Spector (1994) was modified in the Pakistani context. Data were collected from seven public universities with a sample size of 505 university teachers in the Punjab region. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The results indicated that the organizational structure of the universities was organic. The study concluded a positive relationship between all the subscales of organizational structure and teachers' job satisfaction levels. Furthermore, the overall organizational structure was also significantly related to job satisfaction.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong>:</strong> <em>Organizational Structure, Job Satisfaction, Organic and Mechanistic, Content Validity</em></p> Nazma Bibi Musarrat Habib Crystal J. Davis Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 8 1 1 19 10.35993/ijitl.v8i1.2267 Challenges Faced by the Undergraduates in Enhancing their English Language http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2375 <p>Language is the medium which is used to express the ideas and thoughts of human beings. English is an international language and coordinated with all the sectors, prevailing in Sri Lanka especially, in the educational sector. In the state universities of Sri Lanka, English language courses are being integrated as a common subject in most courses. Hence, the study aimed at identifying the challenges faced by the undergraduates in enhancing their English language skills. Based on Mixed methods, the primary data were collected through closed-questionnaire distributed among 100 students of second year undergraduates of Faculty of Islamic Studies and Arabic Language of South Eastern University of Sri Lanka and the semi-structured interviews held among them. Secondary data contributed to construct its theoretical structure. The major findings showed the emergence of several issues with regard to the speaking and listening skills due to the dominance of their mother tongue, Tamil language other than writing and reading skills because of their involvement in improving such skills through various strategies.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>: Challenges, Skills, English Language, Undergraduates</em></p> Abdul Majeed Mohamed Aaqil Muhaz Faizer Rimaza Rizwan Moulana Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 8 1 20 32 10.35993/ijitl.v8i1.2375 Does Research Background Matter? Supervisory Experiences with a Thesis and Non-thesis Post-graduate Students http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2315 <p>Supervision of the research students is not a trouble-free task. It becomes more challenging when supervisors confront the students of varying potential to carry out the research during the process of the thesis. The researchers sought to explore the supervisory experience of post-graduate (M.Phil) students who had done a thesis and those who had not done a thesis in their last degree. Eleven supervisors of different universities in Punjab, Pakistan participated in this study. The participants were aged from 40 to 60 years and most of them were working as assistant professors. The interview method was used for collecting the data and were analyzed through coding, categorizing and describing the emerging themes from the interview transcripts. The results indicated that M.Phil students with a thesis in their last academic degree were found to be comparatively ‘better’ than non-thesis students regarding the conceptual understanding of the research process, using software, confidence and communication skills and they required less supervisory support. The results were presented in the form of emergent themes that described supervisory experiences with these two types of MPhil students. The study has implications for supervisors and research students, particularly for the non-thesis students who require additional skills to pursue their research degrees.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>Thesis students, non-thesis students, higher education, supervisory</em></p> <p><em>experience,</em> <em>supervisory support</em></p> Syed Abdul Waheed Nadia Gilani Tariq Ali Khan Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 8 1 33 52 10.35993/ijitl.v8i1.2315 Effectiveness of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Integrated Teaching and Learning in Primary Schools http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2231 <p>The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) integrated teaching and learning at primary level in Public Private Partnership (PPP) schools. The study also investigated how ICT is integrated for teaching and learning at primary level in PPP schools. The study was qualitative in design and employed phenomenological approach. Data for the study were collected through semi structured interviews, lesson observations and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). The study participants were 15 teachers and 5 head teachers. The study indicated that the schools used Smart LED TVs and Tablet PCs with interactive e-learning application and story-based animated content of Science, English and Mathematics for teaching and learning in classroom. The findings of the study showed that ICT integration improved students’ academic achievements, increased their interest in learning and also increased students’ attendance and enrolment. The findings of the study also presented that ICT integration shifted teachers’ teaching practices from teacher centered to student centered, increased their interest in teaching and made teaching easier for them. The findings of the study may be helpful for different stakeholders working to improve the quality of education in the context of underprivileged areas especially PPP organizations, schools and teachers.&nbsp;</p> <p><em><strong>Keywords:</strong> Teaching and Learning, ICT Integration, Primary Schools, Technology Effectiveness, Public Private Partnership</em></p> Muhammad Roshan Mushtaq Ahmed Sher Bano Nasreen Hussain Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 8 1 53 69 10.35993/ijitl.v8i1.2231 Effect of Concept-Mapping by using Frayer Model on Academic Achievement of Prospective Teachers http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/1283 <p>Frayer Model is the method of assessment used for concept making but there is still a debate in literature that how effectively Frayer Model helps in improving concept building. The main purpose of this research was to contribute in literature through investigating the effect of Frayer Model on academic achievement of prospective teachers. This study employed quasi-experimental design and sample were 87 prospective teachers. Before experiment, pretest of both groups was taken to ensure that they are at same level. After pretest, treatment was applied in different timeframes for the period of sixteen-weeks and then posttest was taken. Pretest and posttest were same that were developed by applying basic rules and guidelines of test development. The validity of the test was ensured by five experts in the field of assessment and curriculum whereas, psychometric analysis was used to measure the reliability and item characteristic of the test by piloting it on 200 prospective teachers. The data were also collected by using Frayer Model sheets to develop the concepts of prospective teachers on different areas of content taught i.e. foundations, models, designs, types etc. Dependent sample t-test was applied to explore the effect of Frayer Model on academic achievement of prospective teachers while independent sample t-test was applied to compare the scores of two groups. On the basis of research findings, it was concluded that Frayer Model has improved the concepts as well as academic achievement and understanding of prospective teachers. &nbsp;Further, it was recommended to use Frayer model in the classrooms to improve the students’ academic achievement and develop concepts.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong>:</strong> <em>Academic Achievement, Assessment, Frayer Model, Prospective Teacher</em></p> Mubashara Akhtar Muhammad Saeed Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 8 1 70 88 10.35993/ijitl.v8i1.1283