International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) <p>The aim of the research journal is to promote research activities and publish original and quality research work in different fields of education. IJITL intends to provide a platform for the researchers, academicians, professional, practitioners and students to impart and share knowledge in the form of research papers, case studies and book reviews.&nbsp;</p> International Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistan en-US International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) 2664-2247 <p>IJITL by Department of Education, IIUI is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. Based on a work at Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at Licensing and Copyright. All articles published by IJITL are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. This permits anyone to copy, redistribute, transmit and adapt the work provided the original work and source is appropriately cited as specified by the Creative Commons Attribution License.The journal allows readers to freely read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and to use them for any other lawful purpose. Once published the copyrights are retained with the Journal.</p><p> <img src="/ojs/public/site/images/humairaakram/CCNC1.png" alt="" /></p><p><span>This work is licensed under a <a title="Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International" href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International</a></span></p> Orientations of Leadership Behaviours Required for School Transformation and Change <p>Leadership is considered as one of the most important factors in school success.&nbsp; Leaders from the successfully transformed schools demonstrate multiple leadership behaviours that vary according to situations. This qualitative study explored important orientations of leadership behaviours in two selected transformed schools in Malaysia. Data were collected through interviews, observations and document review. 28 participants (14 from each schools) including school leaders, administrators and teachers were selected through purposive sampling for interviews. The data collected were consolidated, reduced and interpreted. The four leadership behaviour orientations, which included task-oriented, relation-oriented, change-oriented and ethical-oriented leadership behaviour, came out as main orientations of leadership behaviours required for school transformation.&nbsp; The study offers important implications for school leaders, policy makers, educationists and researchers in Malaysia and elsewhere with similar contexts.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Leadership behaviour orientations, School leaders, School transformation</em></p> Zarina Waheed Muhammad Ilyas Khan Sufean Bin Hussin Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 6 1 1 16 10.35993/ijitl.v6i1.808 Transformational Leadership Style Training for School Leaders <p>This research focused on the training of school leaders in transformational leadership - which is recommended for educational leaders all over the world (Alkhasawneh, 2018) - and to determine if it impacts their leadership skills or not. Based on relevant literature and training need analysis, training was planned and given to 120 in-service school heads for one month. The research was quasi-experimental that used a one-group pre-test post-test design because no similar group was available. The experimental group was divided into two groups; public and private, for a comparison. Also, a follow-up study was conducted to keep it nearer to the experimental approach. The training delivered to the school principals comprised of selected content about the concept of leadership and transformational leadership. This content was reinforced by real-world examples and relevant leadership activities. Participants were assessed under pre-defined grading criteria that were their attendance, participation, and performance in quizzes and assignments during the training. After completion, they were observed and evaluated for their leadership skills at their workplaces and awarded with the points. This quantitative data were analyzed by using mean, standard deviation, and paired sample t-test for knowing and comparing the results. It was found that the transformational leadership style training had improved the effectiveness and leadership skills of school leaders. Similar training courses have been endorsed by training participants for enhancing the leadership styles of school leaders.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>: </em><em>School Leadership, Transformational Leadership Development, School Leadership Development, Transformational Leadership in Schools</em></p> Neelam Nisar Abid Shahzad Mehartab Rabica Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 6 1 17 34 10.35993/ijitl.v6i1.867 Exploring the Gap Analysis of Generic Competences of Pre-Service Teachers in Pakistan <p>Gap in desired and achieved generic competences among university students has always been a point of concern for educationists and researchers. Those who desire for higher level of competence have greater probability of ending up with higher level of achievement. The present study aims to analyse the gap in generic competences among the prospective teachers enrolled in a B.Ed-4 year programme. Prospective teachers’ competence is one of the basic elements ensuring their student success in academic as well as professional life. This study investigated three gaps i.e. desire-gap (gap between desired and optimal level of prospective teachers regarding generic competences), achievement-gap (gap between achievement and optimal level of prospective teachers regarding generic competences) and desire-achievement gap (gap between desired and achievement level of prospective teachers regarding generic competences). There were only 13 public universities in Punjab offering B.Ed-4 year programme. Researchers conveniently sampled 210 prospective teachers from seven universities (53%) in Punjab; and surveyed them through quantitative research method. An adopted competence scale (from an international project i.e. the Reflex Project) comprising 19 generic competences was used to collect the data. The analysis of the data revealed that all three gaps existed among the prospective teachers regarding their generic competences. Desired level (i.e. 80%), though, high enough, nevertheless, yielded the desire-gap (100-80%) of 20%, which showed room for further development. Surprisingly, the achievement-gap (100-67%) was found to be 33%; and the desire-achievement gap (80-67%) to be 16%. Positive correlation showed (higher) achievement level associated with (higher) desired level. Positive relationship between desire and achievement levels implies that high desire brings high achievement. And to reach optimal level it is necessary for the desire level to exalt it to the optimal point. The findings of the study may help prospective teachers to enhance their professional knowledge, skills and competences which increase their employment opportunity.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Desire-Gap, Achievement-Gap, Desire-Achievement Gap, </em><em>Prospective Teachers, Generic Competences </em></p> Mehlah Jabeen Muhammad Sarwar Ashfaque Ahmad Shah Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 6 1 35 50 10.35993/ijitl.v6i1.866 Innovative Teaching Approach for Capacity Building: A Talent Management Prospective for Power Sector in Pakistan <p class="Body">On job training serves as one of the prime tools of staff capacity development and talent management in any public or corporate entity including the power sector distribution companies (DISCOs) in Pakistan. This DISCOs used this approach to train more than 400 officials at Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, hoping it to improve their performance in addressing Pakistan’s power sector crisis. This paper evaluates this capacity-building intervention by gathering the perceptions of trainees and top management to understand the ways this multi-level, integrated capacity-building program enhanced the professional quality of customer services. The question that emerges in backdrop of such initiatives is whether this and other similar investments in human resource development (through effective, innovative and relevant teaching) can improve efficient services delivery. The paper presents a thematic analysis of qualitative and descriptive data collected from randomly selected participants and reviews their feedback on this question. The results suggest a thorough examination of the relationship between human development and organizational capacity-building with indicators of service quality in Pakistan's power sector.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> <em>Innovative teaching, Training, </em><em>Capacity Building; Transmission and Distribution Efficiency; Power Management</em></p> Junaid Alam Memon Fateh Muhammad Mari Faiz Shah Usman Mustafa Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 6 1 51 69 10.35993/ijitl.v6i1.868 Role of Teacher Education in Preparing Teachers for Teaching in Religious Schools of Balochistan <p>A large number of children in Balochistan attend religious schools (Madrasas) that have been criticized for spreading extremist views in the society. Teacher education institutions play a vital role in bringing cultural and religious harmony by producing prospective teachers who are able to cultivate tolerance, acceptance, patriotism, ethnic, religious respect and counter extremism, sectarian, and discrimination prospective. This qualitative exploratory study explores whether the prospective teachers in Balochistan are trained enough to teach in religious schools. The data were collected through in-depth interviews and focused group discussions. All teacher educators and prospective teachers from the universities that remained part of Pre-STEP or Teacher Education Project (TEP) assisted by USAID constituted the population of the study. Sample was selected through purposive sampling from two universities situated in Quetta. 10 teacher educators (5+5) and 10 prospective teachers (5+5) were selected as sample for interviews while two groups of prospective teachers (5 participants in each) were selected from the both case universities for focus group interviews. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. The findings indicated that the prospective teachers and teacher educators considered the recent teacher education programs in Balochistan not enough to train teachers to teach in religious schools.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong>:</strong> <em>Prospective Teachers; Religious Schools; Teacher Education Programs; Balochistan</em></p> Abdul Nasir Kiazai Zarina Waheed Saba Rehman Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 6 1 70 83 10.35993/ijitl.v6i1.1002 The Power of English in Pakistan: Exploring the Views of University Students <p>Pakistan is a multilingual country with Urdu as its national language. It is entrenched in one of the post-colonial effects; the influence of the English language and the power which it exerts in Pakistan with regards to the ever advancing global world. The case study aims at voicing the views of university students in a hope that their concerns are addressed at national level, which will ultimately lead to equity in English language classrooms in Pakistan. It seeks to explore the views of Banking and Finance students of Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan, about the power which English language holds and the multiple ways it is exerted. Forty (40) students, taken through random sampling technique were the participants of study. Quantitative data were collected by administering a questionnaire; whereas, an interview protocol was used for collecting qualitative data. The tools collected data in six categories namely increase in self-confidence, seeking admission in foreign universities, a marker of modernity and social class, attaining a lucrative job, basic schooling and a tag of a good student. The results of the study demonstrated that English language holds a great deal of Power in Pakistan in different walks of life as well as in education of students.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong>:</strong> <em>English in Pakistan, Education, Power of English</em>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Asra Khan Irshad Hussain Zohra Khatoon Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 6 1 84 103 10.35993/ijitl.v6i1.832 Role of Literacy on Working Status and Income Expenditure Gap among Senior Citizens in Rural & Urban Areas of Mirpurkhas <p>The rapidly increasing population of older people in developed as well developing countries including Pakistan is a serious concern. As a result senior citizens face problems during their latter part of life. In most of the cases, the senior citizens are forced to continue work for their livelihood due to poverty. But due to the lack of conducive working opportunities they face hurdles in getting suitable work. This study was conducted with the main objective to evaluate difference in the working status and income expenditure gap among literate and illiterate senior citizens. Descriptive method was followed to conduct this study and random sampling technique was used to select the respondents. Close ended questionnaire was used to collect data from 385 male and female senior citizens in the rural and urban areas of district Mirpurkhas. The study found that the literate senior citizens were in better position as compared to illiterate senior citizens. Literate senior citizens has comparative advantage over illiterate senior citizens in getting work resultantly got better monthly income level as compared to illiterate senior citizens. Moreover, the current status of health of literate senior citizens was also better as compared to illiterate senior citizens.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> <em>Senior citizens, older people, income security, living standard, working status, health, income expenditure gap</em></p> Ghulam Qadir Arbab Nanik Ram Imdad Ali Khawaja Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 6 1 104 121 10.35993/ijitl.v6i1.814 Impact of Public Education Expenditures on Economic Wellbeing in Developing Economies <p>Education can affect economic growth and wellbeing through different channels like by increasing the efficiency of the workforce, reducing inequality, and increasing the knowledge and the innovative capacity of an economy. The key objective of the present research is to explore the impact of public education expenditures on economic wellbeing in developing economies. The present study explored the impact of public education expenditures on economic wellbeing by using panel dataset of 21 developing economies over the period of 1980-2014. Household Final Consumption Expenditure Per Capita was used as a proxy to measure economic wellbeing. The panel estimation technique of Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) was used for the analysis. Research findings revealed that there was a positive and significant relationship between education expenditure and economic wellbeing. Economic wellbeing of the society was directly linked with more priority to educational expenditures in public budget. Hence, developing economies should enhance their public spending on education.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> <em>Economics of Education, Public Education Expenditure, Economic Wellbeing, Household Final Consumption Expenditure per Capita, Developing Economies</em></p> Faiz ur Rahim Posha Gul Madiha Asma Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 6 1 122 139 10.35993/ijitl.v6i1.874 Students’ Attitude towards Reading in English at Dalian University of Technology, China <p>The study was set to know, analyze, and finally realize the students’ attitude towards reading, specifically their attitude toward reading in the English language (L2). To find out the students’ attitudes towards reading was the main aim of the study. The participants’ general attitudes towards reading and their reading preferences were investigated through a survey based on a descriptive research design. From the population of 1200 Graduate (Masters/M.Phil.) students, a sample of 641 were selected using random sampling. The data collected by the questionnaire were analyzed by SPSS Statistics 20 program using mean, median, standard deviation, Cronbach’s alpha, and graphical representation. The survey shows that the students of the Dalian University of Technology had healthy reading habits and they had a positive attitude towards reading. Also, it was found that students' reading habits had a significant impact on students' academic performance. Later, the results were discussed. Finally, this study put forward some suggestions to cultivate the reading habits and attitudes of college students and improve their language level. A few of those suggestions are; the teachers should encourage students in participating in reading activities; Parents should promote reading culture at home; the school administration/library should provide all the required materials for reading; Lastly, the students should take reading as a hobby.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> <em>Reading Attitudes, Academic Performance, Reading Preferences</em></p> Muhammad Farshad Uzma Murad Panhwar Sakina Jumani Saddam Sassi Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 6 1 140 158 10.35993/ijitl.v6i1.916 Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals for Quality Education in institutions of Higher Education in Pakistan: A Qualitative Analysis <p>The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) markedly focused on access to education for all through poverty elevation. All nations and especially developing countries like Pakistan had responded positively to achieve these MDGs. Afterward, UNO announced sustainable development goals(SDGs) agenda of 2030, fourth goal of which was about the quality of education in higher education institutes (HEIs).In this relation, the focus of present research was to analyze current implementations by institutes of higher education for imparting “quality education to promote life-long learning for all” under guidelines of the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan. Therefore, it is important to ensure sustainability in providing quality education to future generations. For conducting this study, a qualitative approach was adopted to get opinions from the heads of departments about measures taken for sustainability. Population of this study comprised all the heads of the departments from all faculties of Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. Whereas, sample consisted nineteen (19) heads from Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, using purposive sampling technique. For data collection purposes, an open-ended semi structured interview protocol was developed, consisting of six questions. Thematic analysis technique was adopted to analyze the opinions of all heads of the departments to achieve SDGs to enhance quality of higher education. Results of study showed that most heads agreed to implement sustainable goals at university level within their capacity. Moreover, the lack of resources and expertise were the major obstacles for implementing these goals in their institutes.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>Sustainable Development Goals, Quality Education, Higher Education</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Khalid Khurshid Shazia Noureen Bashir Hussain Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 6 1 159 173 10.35993/ijitl.v6i1.913 Performance Based Prediction of the Students in the Physics Subject using Traditional and Machine Learning Approach at Higher Education Level <p>In higher educational institutions, it is not an easy task to judge the performance of the students timely which is becoming more challenging. Although institutions have gathered a lot of data about their students. They do not have some specific methods to extract meanings from it. The main objective of this study was to find out the performance-based prediction of the students using their demographic and academic factors by using traditional and machine learning approaches. Graduates and undergraduate students studying in KUST were the population of the study. The study was delimited to the department of physics. A total of ninety graduate and undergraduate students were selected randomly using a simple random sampling technique as the entire sample. &nbsp;The result indicated that percentage in matric (Correlation = 0.304), intermediate (Correlation = 0.245) and National Aptitude Test scores (Correlation = 0.480) found the best predictors. Further research was recommended to predict students’ academic performance by taking other aspects of the students like personality, cognitive, psychological, and economic domain for making a dataset of the features which may be used in machine learning approach which is more reliable to judge the academic performance of the students at the higher education level.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>: Performance, Challenging, Demographic, Prediction, Examination </em></p> Sarfraz Ahmad Ahmad Ishtiaq Hussain Rashid Ahmad Muhammad Naseer Ud Din Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 6 1 174 190 10.35993/ijitl.v6i1.997