International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL <p>The aim of the research journal is to promote research activities and publish original and quality research work in different fields of education. IJITL is providing a platform for the researchers, academicians, professionals, practitioners and students to impart and share knowledge in the form of research papers, case studies and book reviews.</p> International Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistan en-US International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) 2664-2247 <p>IJITL by Department of Education, IIUI is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. Based on a work at www.iiu.edu.pk. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at Licensing and Copyright. All articles published by IJITL are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. This permits anyone to copy, redistribute, transmit and adapt the work provided the original work and source is appropriately cited as specified by the Creative Commons Attribution License.The journal allows readers to freely read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and to use them for any other lawful purpose. Once published the copyrights are retained with the Journal.</p><p> <img src="/ojs/public/site/images/humairaakram/CCNC1.png" alt="" /></p><p><span>This work is licensed under a <a title="Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International</a></span></p> The Effects of Replacing Traditional Punishment with Mindfulness Practices in Schools http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2926 <p>In an era where traditional punitive measures are increasingly critiqued for their efficacy and potential harm, this study delves into the effects of introducing mindfulness practices as disciplinary measures in secondary school settings. Situated in an urban school environment and spanning a six-month duration, the research employed a quasi-experimental design involving 40 students. Quantitative findings indicated a significant reduction in behavioral issues and an enhancement in psychological well-being among students subjected to mindfulness interventions. Qualitative insights, gathered from focus group discussions with educators and students, echoed these results, elucidating the transformative potential of mindfulness in fostering a positive learning environment. However, concerns were raised about the time and resources required for consistent mindfulness implementation. While the study offers promising insights, the results are bound by certain limitations, including a specific age and geographical focus. The findings underscore the potential of integrating mindfulness practices in educational settings, advocating for a balanced approach in school discipline that melds traditional and contemporary methods. Future research is recommended to explore the long-term implications across diverse demographics and settings.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> <em>Mindfulness Practices, Traditional Punitive Measures, Secondary School Discipline, Psychological Well-being, Behavioral Outcomes</em></p> Maroof Ahmed Ghulam Akbar Shafaq Kamal Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 9 2 1 17 10.35993/ijitl.v9i2.2926 Assessment of Senior Secondary School Physics Teachers' Knowledge of Multi-Choice Test Construction Procedures http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2826 <p>The main purpose of this study was to assess the senior secondary school physics teachers' knowledge of multiple-choice test construction. The study employed a survey type research design and the sample consisted of 50 senior secondary school teachers in Ilorin South, East, and West Local Government Areas, which were randomly selected as the sample for this study. Questionnaire was used as instrument that probed teachers' knowledge and their perceived use of test construction strategies. The reliability index of the instrument; Physics Teachers’ Knowledge of Test Construction Procedure (PTKTCP) was determined using Cronbach's alpha approach, which enables one to estimate internal consistency when the scoring of items on a test is not limited to 1 point (for correct) or 0 points (for incorrect response). The collected data were analysed using mean, independent t-test and ANOVA to test if there was a significant difference among the teachers on all the scales. Findings from this study indicated that most teachers consider the preparation of test blueprints important during test construction and that there are no gender differences or influences of teachers' level of experience on their knowledge of multiple-choice test construction procedures. The study recommended that teachers in training colleges of education and universities should be exposed to the technicalities in preparing test blue print in order for their assessment instrument to be valid.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> <em>Assessment, test construction, </em><em>multiple-choice</em><em> test, teachers, </em><em>physics</em><em>, senior </em><em>secondary</em><em> schools</em></p> Abdulrasaq Oladimeji Akanbi Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 9 2 18 34 10.35993/ijitl.v9i2.2826 Investigating the Role of Pretend Play in Developing Creativity among Preschoolers http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2944 <p>This study aimed to investigate the role of pretend play in developing creativity among preschoolers in isolated, associative, and cooperative play. The participants of the study were preschoolers aged from 3.5 to 5 years. The qualitative research approach was employed to observe preschoolers during pretend play of their own choice. The play was observed through nine sessions, 45 minutes each for nine weeks, which was video recorded followed by an interview with a teacher. High and low-structure play objects were provided to the preschoolers to begin the pretend play. As a result of this, cognitive and affective processes were assessed through observation. The results showed that pretend play opens the path for preschoolers to develop creativity and the prospect of an imaginative world. They exhibited imitation, correct representation of toys, irrespective of gender-based selection of toys, and conversion from isolated to cooperative play with progressing sessions. The study concluded that plays are vital and significantly contribute to developing creativity among preschoolers. Further, it is recommended that play intervention programs be introduced and implemented across the country to develop creativity through play among preschoolers.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> <em>Early childhood development, Preschoolers, Pretend play, Creativity</em></p> Dr. Zafar Iqbal Tayyaba Irum Shakil Irsa Zahoor Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 9 2 35 60 10.35993/ijitl.v9i2.2944 Teachers’ Innovative Practices and Secondary School Students’ Academic Performance in the Era of COVID-19 Pandemic in Ilorin Metropolis of Kwara State http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2918 <p>This research was carried out with the aim of finding out whether there exists a significant relationship between teachers’ innovative practices and secondary school students’ performance during the period of COVID-19 in the Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State. The research adopted a descriptive correlational design. There are 53 secondary schools in the Ilorin metropolis while 15 schools that fall within the Ilorin metropolis were randomly selected. The total population of the study is 16, 698 while the sample used for the study was 378 participants which was drawn from the principals, vice principals, heads of department, and subject specialists covered in the study. Two sets of instrument were used for this study which was tagged "Teachers’ Innovative Practices Questionnaire" (TIPQ) and "Students’ Performance Proforma" (SPP) in the 2020/2021 academic session in English Language, Mathematics, Biology, and Economics. In the study, two research questions and one hypothesis were formulated and tested using PPMCS at 0.05 significant level. Results from the analysis showed that there exists a significant relationship between teachers’ innovative practices and secondary school effectiveness. In line with the results, it was recommended that: teachers should improve upon their innovative practices to help the schools to achieve more effectiveness on students’ performance.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> <em>&nbsp;Innovative Practices, Students’ Academic Performance, Secondary School</em></p> Dr. Olubukola James Ojo Dr. Saheed Oyeniran Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 9 2 61 72 10.35993/ijitl.v9i2.2918 Drugs Abuse among Adolescent School Dropouts in Sokoto State, Nigeria: Exploring Adverse Effects on Academic Potential and Relations http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2774 <p>This study aimed to assess the use of drugs among adolescents who have obtained only a primary school certificate in Sokoto and its consequent effect on academic potential and relations. The study was executed using a cross-sectional survey, and data were collected with a questionnaire from 300 respondents selected through a snowballing sampling technique. Eighty cohorts served as control for the study as well. The results show that respondents are Hausa/Fulani Muslims, 15-17 years old, single, have obtained a primary certificate, and are males (100%). They use cigarettes more than the cough syrup. Most of them were victims of drug abuse for a year and a minority for over two years. Most respondents spent 500 Naira on drugs, some spent 300 Naira, and others spent 200 Naira daily. The influences of the drug are: a majority face peer pressure and a minority are influenced by elder/brother. The effects felt on their body due to the drugs mainly were headache, sleep disorders, and tiredness. The others include mental illness, sickness, and loss/lack of morals. Ways to control drug abuse among adolescents are mostly employment and prevention of selling. There is a significant difference between the respondents' drug use and academic potential at p&lt;0.05. There is indeed a harmful use of cough syrup and cigarettes among adolescent dropouts in Sokoto, with many effects. Job creation and prevention of accessibility are needed.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>Primary Education,</em> <em>School dropout, Academic Potential, Skoto</em></p> Yusuf Sarkingobir Dr. Syed Abdul Waheed Dr. Nadia Gilani Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 9 2 73 93 10.35993/ijitl.v9i2.2774 Experiential Learning Strategy and Preschoolers' Performance in English Language http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2837 <p>This experimental study was conducted to examine the effect of experiential learning strategy on vocabulary development of preschool children in English language. The study used a pretest-post quasi experimental design. &nbsp;Two intact groups of preschool children were selected from an English medium school. Each group consisted of 30 children. Instrument was English language test consisting of vocabulary development, spelling test, sentence writing and creative writing. Pre-test was given to both the groups and the results were recorded. The control group was taught using conventional method of teaching; while the experimental group was taught using experiential learning strategy. After intervention of experiential learning strategy, a post test was conducted. Findings of the study showed that the children instructed using experiential learning technique achieved significantly higher scores on English subject test as compared to the students who were taught with conventional teaching method. It was suggested that experiential learning strategy may be used to improve performance in vocabulary development, spelling test and creative writing at preschool stage.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Experiential learning, Teaching strategy, Vocabulary development, English language learning</em></p> Rehana Kausar Dr. Muhammad Athar Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 9 2 94 108 10.35993/ijitl.v9i2.2837 Exploring the Effectiveness of Learning Theories in Improving Students’ Learning Skills at University Level http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJITL/article/view/2920 <p>Learning theories concentrate on the mental and behavioral processes involved in learning, such as problem solving, critical thinking, and decision making. Learning theories play a critical role in the learning process as these provide a method for students to acquire knowledge and skills by interacting with their surroundings and their cognitive abilities. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of learning theories in improving students’ learning outcomes at the university level. The nature of the study was descriptive. The population of the study included university students enrolled in various disciplines. The sample of the study was comprised of 165 university students. Survey questionnaire was used as research tool. The survey questionnaire included statements about familiarity, preferences, and perceived effectiveness of different learning theories. Data were analyzed using statistical techniques; frequency and percentages for responses related to perceptions of learning theories. Findings showed that exposure to various learning theories have positively influenced students’ engagement and interest. Therefore, it is suggested to promote student-centered learning environments that encourage active participation, critical thinking, and application of knowledge, aligning with the principles of effective learning theories.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> <em>Effectiveness, Learning Theories, Cognitive, Learning Outcomes</em></p> Sakina Jumani Prof. Dr. Parveen Munshi Dr. Rozina Sewani Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 9 2 109 120 10.35993/ijitl.v9i2.2920