International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) 2021-07-01T04:08:21+05:00 Prof. Dr. Samina Malik Open Journal Systems <p>The aim of the research journal is to promote research activities and publish original and quality research work in different fields of education. IJITL intends to provide a platform for the researchers, academicians, professional, practitioners and students to impart and share knowledge in the form of research papers, case studies and book reviews.&nbsp;</p> ICT Professional Development Workshops and Classroom Implementation Challenges: Perceptions of Secondary School Teachers in Trinidad and Tobago 2021-06-30T10:09:13+05:00 Steve Warner Muhammed Malik Joanne Mohammed <p>The Ministry of Education (MoE) of The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago has recently embarked on another teacher training program to equip secondary school teachers with the necessary competencies for ICT infusion in their physical classrooms. This study aims to investigate the impact and usefulness of that program, and challenges that the teachers have been facing in its implementation. Thirteen interviews (eight one-on-one and five focused group) were conducted from forty trained teachers. The findings showed that almost all the teachers were quite content and even ecstatic about the workshops and were willing to use the acquired knowledge and skills. Those who were able to use the knowledge and skills attained in the workshops reported improved students’ interest, classroom interaction, and academic performance. However, many expressed disappointments due to the multiple obstacles at their schools which prevented them from fully and effectively using the knowledge and skills from the workshops. They specifically reported insufficient number of computers, poor and inapt ICT environment and most importantly, unreliable internet access and connectivity. This study identifies three important elements in the successful implementation of any ICT in education program: willingness (mainly of administrators, teachers and students), training (especially for the teachers) and infrastructure (physical, hardware and software). Although, there was an overwhelming willingness from the teachers (even excitement) and adequate training, issues with infrastructure appear to be preventing the policy from yielding desired results. In order to ensure that the current policy brings the desired results, the MoE must not only provide effective professional development training for teachers, but also furnish schools with the necessary ICT resources and infrastructure. Only then, the MoE may revolutionize the education system through ICT.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> <em>ICT in education, professional development, teacher training, 21<sup>st</sup> century skills, Trinidad</em></p> 2021-06-30T09:31:17+05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) Deweyan Progressive Education within Ontario Elementary Health and Physical Education 2021-07-01T04:08:21+05:00 Prof. Dr. Thomas Ryan Daniel T. Ryan <p>The objective is to explore Deweyan Progressive Education within Ontario Health and Physical Education. The need to review this area was instigated within the last two years as the Ontario provincial government in Canada has implemented new 2019 Ontario Health and Physical Education curricular guide which contains significant modernizations. The document established a concern for mental health development, online safety, bullying prevention, road safety, substance abuse, concussions, and healthy body image within the 250-page document. The authors undertook a latent content analysis revealing a challenge to compress this curricular content into Health and Physical Education classes that are infrequently scheduled. Teachers, it is understood, will learn that students need progressive instruction and constructive feedback as they practise, reflect, and learn experientially in a safe environment. This review supports educators as they work to better understand the term progressive education and its current pertinence.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong>:</strong> <em>Dewey, philosophy, progressivism, health instruction, physical education</em></p> 2021-06-30T09:35:01+05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) Instructional Effectiveness in History Classrooms: An Analysis of Students’ Perceptions of Instructional Practices of University Teachers 2021-06-30T10:29:03+05:00 Dr. Yaar Muhammad Saba Zaka <p>This qualitative case study was conducted to explore the perceptions of History research students about the effectiveness of instructional practices of university teachers. This study assumes that research students are active stakeholders and keen observers, so they perceive their teachers’ professionalism very deeply. All students who had completed their coursework and were working on their research work at the MPhil level in the Department of History at a public university were selected to conduct this study. An interview guide was constructed to collect the data, which included three significant dimensions: students’ engagement, instructional strategies, and classroom management. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 students who volunteered to participate in the study. Interview data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The findings of the study suggest that most students perceived that teachers used a variety of techniques to motivate the students who showed low interest in the class. Moreover, they perceived that the instructional strategies of teachers were diverse, catering to various learning styles of students. However, students also perceived that some teachers had discouraging behaviour on students’ questioning and also waste class time gossiping with students due to lack of proper planning. It seems there is a need to develop mechanisms for the professional development of faculty members. In addition, there is a need to find ways to motivate teachers to bring effectiveness to their instruction in higher education classrooms.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>:</em> <em>Students’ Engagement, Instructional Strategies, Classroom Management, Instructional Practices, History Education, Students’ Perceptions</em></p> 2021-06-30T09:41:33+05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) Analysis of Students’ Satisfaction on Quality Education at Government Colleges in Lahore Division 2021-06-30T10:34:47+05:00 Alia Sadiq <p>Quality education is the most important and considered as a pivot for progress to uplift the lives of a nation. The success of the educational institutions relies not only on quality education but also on the satisfaction of students. This study aims to explore the relationship between quality education and student satisfaction and difference regarding demographic variables at college level in Lahore Division. All the students from 80 government degree colleges of Lahore division were the population of this study. The study was descriptive in nature and has followed correlational research design. By using simple random sampling technique forty government degree colleges (50% of the population) were selected as sample by adopting lottery method. Self-constructed questionnaires for students “Quality Education Assessment Scale” and “Student Satisfaction Assessment Scale” were the instruments of this study. Appropriate statistical analysis techniques were used on the collected data. Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient were used for determining quality education and student satisfaction. Independent sample t-test was applied to find the difference between demographic variables. Results of the study indicated that quality education exits in colleges according to students. There was moderate significant correlation between two variables (<em>r=</em>.625<em>, p&lt;.</em>05) of the quality education and the students’ satisfaction. As compared to male students, the female students’ had perceived more satisfaction towards students’ satisfaction. Both intermediate and bachelor students’ had perceived almost same level regarding students’ satisfaction.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> <em>Quality Education, Student Satisfaction</em></p> 2021-06-30T09:50:23+05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) Development of TOSRA (Test of Science Related Attitudes) Instrument for Science Related Attitude Studies in Sindh Province 2021-06-30T10:09:15+05:00 Zohra Khatoon <p>This study aims to explore the implementation of attitude measurement tool known as Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) in Sindh. 1097 higher-secondary level students from Hyderabad division of Sindh participated in the study. The alpha reliability values of different scale of TOSRA were analysed and enhanced to acceptable and good level using statistical techniques. The alpha coefficients for adapted TOSRA scales were observed as; Social Implications of Science (0.707), Adoption of Scientific Attitudes (0.801), Classroom Enjoyment (0.779), Leisure Interest in Science (0.767) and Career Interest in Science (0.701). The overall alpha coefficient for adopted (five-scale) TOSRA questionnaire administered in this study was 0.912. Similarly, the values of discriminant validity of the scales were deduced using correlation techniques for these scales where mean correlation between the scales ranged from 0.49 to 0.57. The adopted version of TOSRA was developed based on the statistical analyses including Cronbach alpha, Pearson’s correlation, and factor analysis, and showed sufficient validity and reliability to be implemented in subsequent research to measure students’ attitude towards science in province of Sindh, Pakistan.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>:</em> <em>Attitude towards Science, TOSRA, Instrument development, Science Education, Higher secondary students</em></p> 2021-06-30T09:55:16+05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) Elementary Teachers’ Perceptions about Stakeholders’ Attitude towards Non-assessed Subjects by Punjab Examination Commission 2021-06-30T10:09:15+05:00 Zaib Nisa <p>This study investigates the elementary teachers’ perceptions about stakeholders’ (parents, heads, students) attitude towards subjects not assessed by Punjab Examination Commission (PEC) in public elementary schools. The study focuses on the quantitative research method and survey research design. The study includes population of 254 elementary public schools of Sialkot. However, the researchers have chosen only 95 public elementary schools of Tehsil Sialkot as the target population. Likewise, the study has focused only 48 public elementary schools of Tehsil Sialkot as sample for this research using simple random technique. Similarly, the study deploys Self-tailored questionnaires for data collection. The study has analyzed the collected data on the theoretical framework of the descriptive (Mean, Frequency), inferential (t test), and p value. &nbsp;The study concluded that the respondents’ attitude towards non-assessed subjects in public elementary schools Sialkot has been at a low level. The study recommends that government must revise teachers’ evaluation policy, which is only based on students’ scores. The study suggests that the teachers’ evaluation criteria must be broadened in order to and some other factors may also be considered while evaluating teachers.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong>:</strong> <em>Stakeholders’ attitude, teachers’ perception, Punjab Examination Commission, non-assessed subjects</em></p> 2021-06-30T09:59:06+05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL) Depression, Anxiety and Fear due to COVID-19 in Pakistan: A Study based on Learning Perspective 2021-06-30T10:09:16+05:00 Farhat Jan Muhammad Azeem Qureshi Dr. Malik Mureed Hussain <p>Psychological pressures leading towards instability of psychological states like anxiety, stress, fear and depression. The main objectives of present study were to explore the existence of anxiety, depression and fear among public. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 15<sup>th</sup> April to 4<sup>th</sup> May, 2020. Three research instruments including Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCS), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used. 530 valid questionnaires were received in response to online survey. The results showed that 518 (97.7%) of individuals have fear. The results indicated that those 403 (76.0%) respondents were non-anxious and 127 (46.0%) people were anxious. Depression and non-depression rate was 55.5% and 45.5% respectively. It was revealed that anxiety, depression and fear have significant positive correlation. It was also found that females faced more anxiety, fear and depression than males. Results indicated that following precaution against coronavirus reduces anxiety, depression and fear. Students were found to have higher mean scores on FCS, SAS and SDS as compare to working and unemployed individuals. Compared to students of intermediate, graduation and post-graduation, Undergraduates had higher mean scores which show more fear, anxiety and depression. Therefore, it is requirement due to outbreak of COVID-19 to facilitate psychological state of general public.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>COVID-19, Anxiety, Depression, Fear, Correlation</em></p> 2021-06-30T10:02:31+05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Innovation in Teaching and Learning (IJITL)