Exploring the Gap Analysis of Generic Competences of Pre-Service Teachers in Pakistan

  • Mehlah Jabeen University of Sargodha
  • Muhammad Sarwar Department of Education, University of Sargodha
  • Ashfaque Ahmad Shah Department of Education, University of Sargodha


Gap in desired and achieved generic competences among university students has always been a point of concern for educationists and researchers. Those who desire for higher level of competence have greater probability of ending up with higher level of achievement. The present study aims to analyse the gap in generic competences among the prospective teachers enrolled in a B.Ed-4 year programme. Prospective teachers’ competence is one of the basic elements ensuring their student success in academic as well as professional life. This study investigated three gaps i.e. desire-gap (gap between desired and optimal level of prospective teachers regarding generic competences), achievement-gap (gap between achievement and optimal level of prospective teachers regarding generic competences) and desire-achievement gap (gap between desired and achievement level of prospective teachers regarding generic competences). There were only 13 public universities in Punjab offering B.Ed-4 year programme. Researchers conveniently sampled 210 prospective teachers from seven universities (53%) in Punjab; and surveyed them through quantitative research method. An adopted competence scale (from an international project i.e. the Reflex Project) comprising 19 generic competences was used to collect the data. The analysis of the data revealed that all three gaps existed among the prospective teachers regarding their generic competences. Desired level (i.e. 80%), though, high enough, nevertheless, yielded the desire-gap (100-80%) of 20%, which showed room for further development. Surprisingly, the achievement-gap (100-67%) was found to be 33%; and the desire-achievement gap (80-67%) to be 16%. Positive correlation showed (higher) achievement level associated with (higher) desired level. Positive relationship between desire and achievement levels implies that high desire brings high achievement. And to reach optimal level it is necessary for the desire level to exalt it to the optimal point. The findings of the study may help prospective teachers to enhance their professional knowledge, skills and competences which increase their employment opportunity.

Keywords: Desire-Gap, Achievement-Gap, Desire-Achievement Gap, Prospective Teachers, Generic Competences