Role of Literacy on Working Status and Income Expenditure Gap among Senior Citizens in Rural & Urban Areas of Mirpurkhas

  • Ghulam Qadir Arbab Sindh University
  • Nanik Ram University of Sindh, Jamshoro
  • Imdad Ali Khawaja University of Sindh, Jamshoro


The rapidly increasing population of older people in developed as well developing countries including Pakistan is a serious concern. As a result senior citizens face problems during their latter part of life. In most of the cases, the senior citizens are forced to continue work for their livelihood due to poverty. But due to the lack of conducive working opportunities they face hurdles in getting suitable work. This study was conducted with the main objective to evaluate difference in the working status and income expenditure gap among literate and illiterate senior citizens. Descriptive method was followed to conduct this study and random sampling technique was used to select the respondents. Close ended questionnaire was used to collect data from 385 male and female senior citizens in the rural and urban areas of district Mirpurkhas. The study found that the literate senior citizens were in better position as compared to illiterate senior citizens. Literate senior citizens has comparative advantage over illiterate senior citizens in getting work resultantly got better monthly income level as compared to illiterate senior citizens. Moreover, the current status of health of literate senior citizens was also better as compared to illiterate senior citizens.

Keywords: Senior citizens, older people, income security, living standard, working status, health, income expenditure gap