Transforming Science Education through Digital Technology

  • Farkhunda Rasheed Chaudhary AIOU, Islamabad
  • Sidra Khushnood AIOU, Islamabad


Science teaching and learning has always been the attention of the researchers. Learning science became significant through experiential integrations. The learning experiences for science education can become rich if virtual reality (VR) technology is infused with learning. The purpose of the study was to measure the improvement in scores and interest of the learners towards science using VR science videos. The sample consisted of 80 students of which 40 students were in control group in which 20 students were 4th graders and 20 students were from 7th graders. The other 40 studnets were in experimental group in which 20 students were 4th graders and 20 students were 7th graders. Questionnaire was administered to measure the interest of the learners. A pretest-posttest experimental research design was used. The interest questionnaire along with pretest was administered before VR intervention and a posttest along with interest questionnaire was administered after VR intervention. The results reflected the positive impact of the treatment. The results showed students’ improved scores and interest towards science for 4th as well as 7th graders. It is recommended to use VR for the teaching and learning of science concepts to make positive students’ interest towards science.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Visualization, Imagination, Science Education

Author Biographies

Farkhunda Rasheed Chaudhary, AIOU, Islamabad
Assistant Professor, Science Education Department
Sidra Khushnood, AIOU, Islamabad
M.Phil Scholar, Science Education Department


Annetta, L., Mangrum, J., Holmes, S., Collazo, K., & Cheng, M.-T. (2009). Bridging Reality to VR: Investigating gender effect and student engagement on learning through video game play in an elementary school classroom. International Journal of Science Education, 31(8), 1091-1113.

Bailey, J. O., & Bailenson, J. N. (2017). Considering Virtual Reality In Children's Lives. Journal of Children and Media, 11(1), 107-113.

Black, E. R. (2017). Learning then and there: an exploration of virtual reality in k-12 history education (Plan-II Honors Thesis), University of Texas, Austin.

Cheng, K.-H., & Tsai, C.-C. (2013). Affordances of Augmented Reality in Science Learning: Suggestions for future Research. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 22(4), 449-462.

Christou, C. (2010). Virtual Reality in Education. In Tzanavari, A., Tsapatsoulis, N., (Eds.), Affective, Interactive and Cognitive Methods for E-Learning Design: Creating an Optimal Education Experience, (pp 228-243).IGI Global.

Dalgarno, B., & Lee, M. J. (2010). What are the learning affordances of 3-D virtual environments? (B. Journal compilation, Ed.) British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(1), 10-32.

Davis, B., & Summers, M. (2014). Applying Dale’s Cone of Experience to increase learning and retention: A study of student learning in a foundational leadership course. QScience Proceedings (Engineering Leaders Conference), Purdue University, West Lafayette, USA. Retrieved August 04, 2018, from

Ekstrand, C., Jamal, A., Nguyen, R., Kudryk, A., Mann, J., & Mendez, I. (2018). Immersive and interactive virtual reality to improve learning and retention of neuroanatomy in medical students: a randomized controlled study. CMAJ Open, 6(1), 103-109.

Elvestad, E. O. (2016). Evidence of Learning in Virtual Reality. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Computer Science, Norway.

Fernandez, M. (2017). Augmented Virtual Reality: How to Improve Education Systems. Higher Learning Research Communications, 7(1), 1-15.

Fogler, H. S., & Bell, T. J. (2015). The Investigation and Application of Virtual Reality as an Educational Tool. Proceedings of the American Society for Engineering Education 1995 Annual Conference, Session number 2513, 3.

Freina, L., & Ott, M. (2015). A Literature Review on Immersive Virtual Reality in Education: State Of The Art and Perspectives. Learning and Software for Education, 1, 133-141.

Huang, H.-M., Rauch, U., & Liaw, S.-S. (2010). Investigating learners’ attitudes toward virtual reality learning environments: Based on a constructivist approach. Computers & Education, 55(3), 1171-1182.

Jarmon, L., Traphagan, T., Mayrath, M., & Trivedi, A. (2009). Virtual world teaching, experiential learning, and assessment: An interdisciplinary communication course in Second Life. Computers & Education, 53, 169–182.

Kaufmann, H., & Meyer, B. (2009). Physics Education in Virtual Reality: An Example. Themes in science and technology education (Special Issue), 117-130.

Kim, P. (2007). Effects of 3D virtual reality of plate tectonics on fifth grade students' achievement and attitude toward science. Interactive Learning Environments, 14(1), 25-34.

Lee, J., & Hu-Au, E. (2017). Virtual reality in education: a tool for learning in the experience age. International Journal of Innovation in Education, 4(4), 215-226.

Limniou, M., Roberts, D., & Papadopoulos, N. (2008). Full immersive virtual environment CAVE in Chemistry Education. (Elsevier, Ed.) Computers & Education, 51, 584-593.

Liou, W.-K., & Chang, C.-Y. (2018). Virtual reality classroom applied to science education. 23rd International Scientific-Professional Conference on Information Technology (IT) (pp. 1-4). Zabljak: IEEE Xplore.

Makransky, G., & Lilleholt, L. (2018). A structural equation modeling investigation of the emotional value of immersive virtual reality in education. Education,Technology, Research and Development, 66(5), 1141-1164.

Makransky, G., Terkildsen, T. S., & Mayer, R. E. (2017). Adding immersive virtual reality to a science lab simulation causes more presence but less learnng. Learning and Instruction, 60(1), 225-236.

Merchant, Z., Goetz, E., Cifuentes, L., Kennicutt, W., & Davis, T. (2014). Effectiveness of VR-based instruction on Students' Learning outcomes in K-12 and Higher Education:A meta-analysis. Computers & Education, 70, 29-40.

Moro, C., Stromberga, Z., & Stirling, A. (2017). Vrtualizaton devices for student learning: Comparison between desktop-based (Oculus Rift) and mobile-based (Gear VR) virtual realty in medical and health science education. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(6), 1-10.

Nadan, Alexandrov, V., Jamieson, R., & Watson. (2011). Is VR a memorable experience in an educatonal context? International Journal of Emerging Technologies in learning (IJET), 6(1), 53-57.

Parong, J., & Mayer, R. E. (2018). Learning Science in Immersive Virtual Reality. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110(6), 785-797.

Piovesan, S. D., Passerino, L. M., & Pereira, A. S. (2012). Virtual reality as a tool in the education. IADIS International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital age, 295-298. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from

Rupp, M. A., Kozachuk, J., & Michaelis, J. R. (2016). The Effects of Immersiveness and Future VR expectations on subjective experiences during an educational 360 degree video. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 60(1), 2108-2112.

Santos, B. S., & Junho. (2017). An Introduction to Virtual (and other) Realities. ieeta, 87. Retrieved July 26, 2018, from

Shabiralyani, G., Hasan, K. S., Hamad, N., & Iqbal, N. ( 2015 ). Impact of Visual Aids in Enhancing the Learning Process Case . Journal of Education and Practice , 6(19), 226-234.

Southgate, E. (2018). Immersive virtual reality, children and school education: A literature review for teachers. DICE Research, DICE report series Number 6. Australia: Newcastle. Retrieved November 03, 2019, from

Tiala, S. K. (2005). Virtual reality in the k-12 classroom (PhD Dissertation). Iowa Sate University, Iowa.

Trindade, J., Fiolhais, C., & Almeida, L. (2002). Science learning in virtual environments: a descriptive study. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 33(4), 471-488. doi: 10.1111/1467-8535.00283