• Fouzia Ajmal International Islamic University, Islamabad
  • Nabi Bux Jumani International Islamic University, Islamabad
  • Samina Malik International Islamic University, Islamabad


In the education process both teaching and learning are fundamental. One school of thought says that effective teachers can bring good results whereas another school of thought claims that success depends mostly upon the learners’ effort and potential. There has been a variety of teacher training strategies and models and at the same time there are different theories and strategies of learning. In Problem-Based Learning (PBL) a teacher has to play the role of facilitator/moderator and students have to present/explore/create knowledge. The current experimental study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of Problem Based Learning for Teacher Education in Pakistan. One group Pre-test, Post-test design of experiment was utilized for the study. The course of “Educational Research” was taught through PBL to 35 MA Education female students at International Islamic University Islamabad. After administering the pre-test the students were taught the course for 8 weeks by using PBL and the post test took the form of a mid-term exam. The data were analyzed using the t-Test. There was significant difference in the mean scores of pre-test and post test, which strengthens the notion that PBL promotes effective learning in teacher education. The results pave the way for the implementation of PBL as an effective pedagogy for teacher education programs in Pakistan.

Author Biographies

Fouzia Ajmal, International Islamic University, Islamabad
Assistant Professor, Department of Education
Nabi Bux Jumani, International Islamic University, Islamabad
Professor of Education/ Director, Directorate of Distance Education
Samina Malik, International Islamic University, Islamabad
Professor of Education/ Dean, Faculty of Social Sciences


Ajmal, M. F., Jumani, N. B., & Malik, S. (2016). Utilizing Problem Based Learning in Pre-Service Teacher Education: Experiences of Prospective Teachers in Pakistan. Journal of Education and Human Development, 5(2), 215-222.

Albanese, M.A., & Mitchell, S. (1993). Problem based learning: A review of literature on its outcomes and implementation issues. Academic medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 68(1), 52 81.

Barrows, H. S. (1986). Taxonomy of problem-based learning methods. Medical Education, 20 (1), 481–486.

Barrows, H. S. (1996). Problem‐based learning in medicine and beyond: A brief overview. New directions for teaching and learning, (68), 3-12.

Dastgeer, G., & Afzal, M. T. (2015). Improving English Writing Skill: A Case of Problem Based Learning. American Journal of Educational Research, 3(10), 1315-1319.

Boud, D., & Feletti, G. (1997). The Challenge of Problem-based Learning, London: Kogan

Cockrell, K. S., Caplow, J. A. H., & Donaldson, J. F. (2000). A Context for Learning: Collaborative groups in the problem based learning environment. Review of Higher Education, 23(3), 347 363.

Duch, B. J., Groh S. E., & Allen D. E., (2001) The Power of Problem-based Learning: A Practical "how to" for Teaching Undergraduate Courses in Any Discipline, Stylus: Sterling, VA.

Endrogen, T. (2014) Problem-based Learning in Teacher Education: Its Promises and Challenges Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 5th World Conference on Educational Sciences, 16, 459–463.

Finkle, S. L., & Torp, L. L. (1995). Introductory documents. Available from the Center for problem-based Learning, Illinois Math and Science Academy, 1500 West Sullivan road, Aurora, IL 60506-1000.

Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2004). Problem-based learning: What and how do students learn? Educational Psychology Review, 16, 235–266.

Jeong, H., & Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2010). Productive use of learning resources in an online problem-based learning environment. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 84-99.

Major, C. (1999). Connecting what we know and what we do through problem based learning. AAHE Bulletin, 51(1), 7 9.

Major, C. H., & Palmer, B. (2001). Assessing the effectiveness of problem-based learning in higher education: Lessons from the literature. Academic exchange quarterly, 5(1), 4-9.

Nightingale, P., Te Wiata, I., Toohey, S., Ryan, G., Hughes, C., & Magin, D. (1996). Assessing learning in universities. Sydney: UNSW Press.

Norman, G. R., & Schmidt, H. G. (1992). The psychological basis of problem-based learning: A review of the evidence. Academic Medicine, 67, 557-565.

Government of Pakistan. (2009). National Education Policy. Ministry of Education.

Savin, B., & Claire, H. (2000). Foundations of Problem-based Learning, McGraw-Hill International

Schmidt, H. G. (1983). Problem‐based learning: Rationale and description. Medical education, 17(1), 11-16.

Schmidt, H. G., Cohen-Schotanus, J., & Arends, L. R. (2009). Impact of problem-based, active learning on graduation rates for 10 generations of Dutch medical students. Medical Education, 43, 211-218.

Schmidt, H. G., Loyens, S. M. M., Van Gog, T., & Paas, F. (2007). Problem-based learning is compatible with human cognitive architecture: Commentary on Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006). Educational Psychologist, 42, 91–97.

Bruggen, J. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2003). Designing external representations to support solving wicked problems. In J. Andriessen, M. Baker, & D. Suthers (Eds.), Confronting Cognitions: Arguing to learn (pp. 177-203). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Press.

Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2007). Ten steps to complex learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Vernon, D. A., & Blake, R. L. (1993). Does problem based learning work? A meta analysis of evaluative research. Academic Medicine, 68(7), 550 563.

Werth, E. P., (2009).Student perception of learning through a problem-based learning exercise: an exploratory study. Idaho Police Officer Standards and Training, Meridian, Idaho.

Yeo, R. (2005). Problem-based learning: lessons for administrators, educators and learners. International Journal of Educational Management. 19(7), 541-551