International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJDEEL <p>The aim of the Research journal is to promote research activities and provide original, relevant, and timely information in different fields of distance education and e-learning education. It will focus on the use of the latest media/ technologies in distance learning and the implementation and integration of new technologies in distance teaching-learning. The journal is available to all practitioners and researchers who are interested in publishing their research work in Distance Education and E-Learning.</p> en-US <p>© By Department of Education (Directorate of Distance Education) International Islamic University Islamabad. IJDEEL by International Islamic University Islamabad is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. Based on a work at www.iiu.edu.pk.&nbsp; All articles published by IJDEEL are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial 4.0 International License . This permits anyone to copy, redistribute, transmit and adapt the work provided the original work and source is appropriately cited as specified by the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.</p> editor.ijdeel@iiu.edu.pk (Prof. Dr.N.B.Jumani) associateeditor.ijdeel@iiu.edu.pk (Dr. Azhar Mahmood) Wed, 06 Jul 2022 15:47:30 +0500 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 SUPPORTING THE SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF E-LEARNING IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN PUBLIC SECTOR http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJDEEL/article/view/2433 <p>This paper examines the change drivers and difficulties linked to implementing e-learning in the South African Public Service Sector in line with policy imperatives and global trends. The question of e-learning arose in a context of a project which aimed to investigate specific contextual variables that need to be addressed to strengthen skills development within the public sector. The study drew upon systems thinking to analyse the South African public service training system as different units within a system. Insights from stakeholder engagement and framework development processes were assessed, and critical emergent themes to inform the e-learning needs of the public sector were identified. The study shows that the catalysing of the uptake and implementation of e-learning within the public sector requires specific tools, time, understanding of the e-learning pedagogical processes, upskilling of digital literacy at all levels, and workable data-free, smartphone friendly training, and communication platforms.</p> Wilma Van Staden Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJDEEL/article/view/2433 Wed, 06 Jul 2022 15:25:24 +0500 BLENDED LEARNING: THE “NEW NORMAL” IN EDUCATION DELIVERY http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJDEEL/article/view/2435 <p>Successful blended learning contexts engage students in highly interactive virtual learning environments through a mix of online and face-to-face teaching, learning and assessment modalities.&nbsp; This paper explores some of the affordances and constraints of blended learning for one Higher Education Institution in Ireland.&nbsp; TPACK (Mishra &amp; Koehler, 2006) and Multimodal (Picciano, 2009) models frame the discussion opportunities and challenges more broadly for blended learning instructional and pedagogical design post pandemic in Higher Education.</p> Tom Foley, Alicia Curtin Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJDEEL/article/view/2435 Wed, 06 Jul 2022 15:27:52 +0500 EXPLORING STUDENTS’ USE OF E-RESOURCES IN THE E-LIBRARIES OF THE PUNJAB http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJDEEL/article/view/2437 <p>This study was conducted to explore students’ use of E-resources in the E-libraries of the Punjab by using Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. The use of e-resources included; performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating condition, and behavioral intention to use the e-resources. Students’ access to e- collection, ease of access, frequency of using resources, and problems associated with access to e-resources was also explored. A quantitative survey was conducted using a descriptive research design. All 20 e-libraries of the Punjab were the population of this research. Six e-libraries were selected randomly as a sample.&nbsp; The sample was selected from the list of users registered in each library using a proportionate sampling technique. The total number of participants was 250. A self-developed questionnaire with 26 items and a checklist having 8 items, was used to collect the data. To analyze the data descriptive statistics was used. The findings of this study showed that students agreed that they were getting advantages from these e-libraries and these e-libraries were very helpful in their study. They could easily and more efficiently do their work by using and accessing e-library resources. These e-libraries were especially beneficial for those students who did not afford laptops. It is suggested that the government should increase the number of these e-libraries and these libraries should be established in all big cities of Pakistan. The library staff should focus on resolving the problems which students are facing, like a shortage of computers and off-library access.</p> Humaira Iqbal, Riffat-un-Nisa Awan, Ghazanfar Ali Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJDEEL/article/view/2437 Wed, 06 Jul 2022 15:29:25 +0500 CAN MULTIPLE WHATSAPP GROUPS REDUCE MESSAGE FLOODING DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC PERIOD? http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJDEEL/article/view/2438 <p>WhatsApp has been favoured by many educators and students as an online learning tool during the COVID-19 pandemic.&nbsp; Despite its’ popularity in educational settings, the flooding of messages on group chats remains a challenge for teachers as well as students. Currently there is a gap in research when it comes to investigating the types of conversations that students have on such groups which is intended for teaching and learning purposes, as well as a possible solution with regard to the flooding of messages. The purpose of this study is to investigate the chats that make up redundant posts that are often experienced on WhatsApp groups as well as to see whether multiple WhatsApp groups for a subject may reduce the flooding of messages.&nbsp; For the purpose of this study, the conversations on WhatsApp of a complete online first-year statistics course at a South African university will be analysed by making use of a WhatsApp chat analyser app, ChatChart. The findings of this study revealed that students flooded groups mostly with university-related matters, for example test dates, learning material, WhatsApp links to other subjects at the university, lecturer information, as well as important information that was posted on the student portal and test marks. The creation of two additional WhatsApp groups reduced message flooding within the content group where subject content was posted, while the other two groups served as a “place” where students were allowed to interact with their statistics lecturer as well as each other to discuss university-related matters.</p> Danri H. Delport Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJDEEL/article/view/2438 Wed, 06 Jul 2022 15:32:07 +0500 PREFERENCE DETERMINES PERFORMANCE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ PREFERENCE OF ON-CAMPUS AND ONLINE LEARNING AND THEIR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE DURING COVID-19 http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJDEEL/article/view/2439 <p>On-campus and online learning modalities provide rich and diverse learning experiences to students with certain physical, psychological and Covid-19 limitations. Present study was carried out to compare the students’ preference of on-campus and online learning and their academic performance in both modes with the purpose of identifying the causes behind their choices. Mixed method research design was selected. 358 students from two public universities of Islamabad participated in research. The research instrument consisted of a mixed questionnaire containing close ended items followed by an open-ended research question. Results showed that majority of students preferred on-campus classroom learning. GPAs of students were better in online classes as compared to on-campus classes. Students favored on-campus learning due to good teacher-student relationships, better course content understanding, more class participation, high motivation, use of a variety of pedagogical practices, and more reliable assessment technique. Those students who favoured online classes said that it is easy to attend from any place, it saves travelling time and cost. Trainings may be provided to teachers about the use of various teaching strategies and suitable assessment techniques for online classes to enhance its effectiveness.</p> Samra Afzal, Marium Din, Hukam Dad Malik Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJDEEL/article/view/2439 Wed, 06 Jul 2022 15:38:55 +0500 THE CHALLENGES OF PHD SUPERVISION IN AN EMERGING ODL CONTEXT: A STUDY AT THE OPEN UNIVERSITY OF MAURITIUS http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJDEEL/article/view/2440 <p>With open education providing accessibility, equality of opportunities and transparency to further studies, many individuals who could not pursue their postgraduate studies in the conventional universities of the country, embark on postgraduate studies through the blended learning mode of education at the only public University of Mauritius. For effective postgraduate research, there needs to be effective and sufficient supervision. However, in the context of PhD supervision in ODL African universities, the insufficient number of academics lacks the necessary supervisory skills and therefore supervision is a challenging task. This paper explores the challenges that supervisors face in guiding PhD candidates in an emerging ODL African University. For the purpose of this study, the exploratory and inductive qualitative research approach was used to gather in-depth information from 10 academics who are involved in online PhD supervision. The individual in-depth semi-structured interview was used. In the context of an emerging ODL institution in Africa, it was found that PhD supervisors face various challenges, namely a lack of research culture, a lack of mastery methodology skills, insufficient online discussion meetings, the divergent lens of academic research and an absence of an online PhD research protocol. The findings suggest that an emerging ODL institution must adopt a systemic approach to PhD supervision, adopt other models of supervision than the apprenticeship model, establish a database protocol for supervision data, and design and use a Feedback Explanation Tool and a Memorandum of Understanding to ensure a good supervisory relationship and process.</p> Belle Louis Jinot Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJDEEL/article/view/2440 Wed, 06 Jul 2022 15:40:47 +0500 FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TOWARDS DROP OUT IN M.PHIL AT ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJDEEL/article/view/2441 <p>Drop out refers to the phase when a student is not able to complete the program of degree within the specified time. The danger of drop out is very serious in any education system including distance education. This article highlights major factors causing drop out at M.Phil level in Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), Pakistan. Allama Iqbal Open University is the only chartered Distance Education University which caters for over 1.3 million students across the country. The study aimed at finding various factors leading to drop out of students in different faculties at AIOU which offer M.Phil programs. It also aimed to find out differences of drop out rate among male and female students. The research is basically quantitative in nature with a survey design. The population of the study included all the drop out of M.Phil programs offered at AIOU. The sample consisted of total 101 students from three faculties i.e., Education, Social Sciences and Science 2012 session. The M.Phil prospectus of AIOU focuses on four main factors i.e., assignments, workshops, final exams, and thesis which need to be successfully completed for the award of degree in the program. These four factors were focused to develop an online questionnaire to collect data. Descriptive statistics, t-test and ANOVA were used for data analysis. The results indicated that the major factor of drop out across the three faculties was thesis. The findings further revealed no difference in the drop outrate of male and female M.Phil students due to assignments, workshop, and final exams whereas thesis remained the only factor which showed significant difference on the basis of gender, where more male students dropped out than females. To minimize dropout due to thesis, reforms need to be brought in the conduct of M.Phil research workshop at AIOU focusing specific criteria for monitoring the progress of M.Phil students during synopsis development and research work period and the contribution of supervisor in terms of time and commitment towards the supervisee. Further implementation of the prescribed criteria may be ensured by the academic administration and relevant departments of the three faculties offering M.Phil program at AIOU.</p> Sidra Rizwan, Saba Arshad, Rehana Rehman Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning http://irigs.iiu.edu.pk:64447/ojs/index.php/IJDEEL/article/view/2441 Wed, 06 Jul 2022 15:42:53 +0500