International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning <p>The aim of the Research journal is to promote research activities and provide original, relevant, and timely information in different fields of distance education and e-learning education. It will focus on the use of the latest media/ technologies in distance learning and the implementation and integration of new technologies in distance teaching-learning. The journal is available to all practitioners and researchers who are interested in publishing their research work in Distance Education and E-Learning.</p> en-US <p>© By Department of Education (Directorate of Distance Education) International Islamic University Islamabad. IJDEEL by International Islamic University Islamabad is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. Based on a work at; All articles published by IJDEEL are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial 4.0 International License . This permits anyone to copy, redistribute, transmit and adapt the work provided the original work and source is appropriately cited as specified by the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.</p> (Prof. Dr.N.B.Jumani) (Dr. Azhar Mahmood) Thu, 28 Dec 2023 11:26:48 +0500 OJS 60 Role of Habit as Mediator within the Factors in UTAUT2 Model Predicting Tertiary Students’ Learning Management System (LMS) Acceptance <p>This study aimed to model tertiary students' perceptions of usage intention and use of Google Classroom, a Learning Management System (LMS). The research model emphasizes the mediator role of habit in the relationships between the constructs within the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) model. The research design used was descriptive-quantitative. In the study, 1,467 students from the different colleges and campuses of one of the universities in Camarines Sur, Philippines, responded to the survey. The data were analyzed using the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). The study's results revealed that the predictive relationships between facilitating condition and behavioral intention and effort expectancy and behavioral intention were fully mediated by habit. Meanwhile, habit partially mediates the relationships between performance expectancy and behavioral intention, social influence and behavioral intention, and hedonic motivation and behavioral intention. The Importance-Performance Map Analysis (IPMA) result revealed that habit and facilitating conditions were the strongest predictors of behavioral intention and use behavior, respectively. These findings imply that while it is essential to upgrade the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure, internet connectivity, and other forms of technical support to strengthen facilitating conditions for online education, school initiatives focusing on habit formation among students should receive equal importance.</p> <p><em>Keywords</em>: <em>Google Classroom, Tertiary Education, UTAUT2 Model, PLS-SEM</em></p> Alvin Celedonio, Ma. Cristina Picaso Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning Wed, 27 Dec 2023 05:46:22 +0500 Improving Online Engineering Education: Predicting Technological Awareness with Neural Net and Deep Learning Techniques <p>Due to lockdowns during the COVID-19 outbreak, all educational institutions throughout the world have been shuttered, and students are unable to meet their instructors in person. Online education is the most effective method for retaining students and providing access to learning. However, it should be noted that the online education system is technologically reliant, making it difficult to administer and inaccessible to some students. Faculty and students, especially in developing countries, are both unprepared for online education, and they lack the necessary technological awareness and resources, such as internet availability, mobile or android devices, desktop/laptop computers, etc. So, this study involves the prediction of technological awareness among the faculty and students of engineering technologies when moving from a conventional education system to online education at the higher education level using Neural Net and Deep Learning techniques. The data collected through the survey consisted overall 2219 students and 257 faculty responses of seven engineering technologies. Accuracy, Kappa, and Correlation are the performance metrics for these techniques. The study results concluded that both the students and faculty of Telecommunication Engineering, students of Software Engineering, and Faculty of Computer Engineering are more aware of technology and ready for online education.</p> Khalid Mahboob, Nida Khalil, Saniah Rehan Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning Wed, 27 Dec 2023 05:58:11 +0500 Investigating User Acceptance of Blended Learning at University Level: A Cross-Sectional Study <p>Blended learning is an approach that combines face-to-face and online learning modes, and learning management systems are used to facilitate it. The successful implementation of new technologies depends on their acceptance by users. This study aims to examine the acceptance of blended learning in the context of higher education in Pakistan, utilizing a research model based on the Technology Acceptance Model. To achieve this goal, a blended course was designed and implemented, and a total of 48 undergraduate students from the University of Turbat were selected to participate in the study. A quantitative cross-sectional approach was employed to gather data through a questionnaire survey, which was then analyzed using SPSS 23 and AMOS 23 software tools. The findings provide insights into the factors that influence the acceptance of blended learning in Pakistani higher education institutions. Based on the results, recommendations are suggested to facilitate the successful implementation of blended learning in the higher education context of Pakistan.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jamil Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning Wed, 27 Dec 2023 06:11:04 +0500 Relationship Between Course Effectiveness, Satisfaction, Access and Academic Self – efficacy in the HyFlex Mode of Instruction in Pakistani Classroom <p>Considering the transition of education activities from traditional classroom to online due to covid-19, Pakistan has witnessed a new social inequality – Digital Divide.&nbsp; To fight this inequality among masses in the country this research proposes a new way of instructional design i.e., HyFlex. Access to education in general is problematic in Pakistan. Hyflex proposes easy access to education for Pakistani students through improved methods of delivery. HyFlex is a short form for Hybrid Flexible (HyFlex) Classroom. Hyflex is an instructional technology that erased the boundaries between distance learning and physical classroom. It gives students to choose method of attending lectures according to their flexibility. Because of the growing digital divide in Pakistan, not every student has access to internet /electricity/digital devices etc. Hence, this instructional technology can help students and teachers to attend classes according to their flexible time and needs. This research aims to measure through HyFlex accessibility of the course, level of achieved learning outcomes, student motivation and availability of hardware technology (Smart classroom). A survey was conducted from the Pakistani university students’ majority of them were computer science students. The results were run on AMOSS SPS. The results show that academic self-efficacy is achieved among students through course satisfaction and course effectiveness.&nbsp;</p> Hira Raza, Tahira Anwar Lashari , Sana Anwar Lashari Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning Wed, 27 Dec 2023 06:52:59 +0500 Analysis of University Students’ Generic Competence and Learning Experience in Face-to-Face and Online Classroom <p>Purpose of the current study was to “compare the generic competence and learning experience of university students in face-to-face and online classroom”. Quantitative research method was used for the current study. Due to Pandemic situation of COVID-19, by using convenience sampling technique, sample was selected from three faculties i.e., Faculty of Social Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and Technology and Faculty of Agriculture of University of Sargodha. The sample of the current study consisted of 400 students from regular and self-support programs of BS (semester 5<sup>th</sup> and 7<sup>th</sup>). Data were collected online by using Google form. Two adapted instruments “Generic Competence Scale (GCS)” (Shah, 2009) and “Student Learning Experiences Questionnaire (SLEQ)” (Almoslamani, 2018)&nbsp;were used for the data collection. Academic performance was measured through students cumulative Grade Point Average(CGPA). Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for analysis of data by using SPSS. The study concluded that there was a significant effect of face to face classroom as compared to online classroom among university students. On the basis of obtained results, its concluded that face-to-face classroom learning is considered better than online classroom learning. It is recommended that in order to cope with the changing situation of world, educational institutions may conduct training programs for improvement of online education.</p> Ashfaque Ahmad Shah; Zunaira Fatima Syeda; Sehrish Naseer Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning Wed, 27 Dec 2023 07:00:39 +0500 Educators Unplugged: Assessing the Readiness of Secondary School Science and Arts Teachers for Mobile Learning Integration <p>Mobile learning enhances classroom engagement and accessibility, fostering personalized and interactive learning experiences for students while accommodating different learning styles. The study aims to investigate the readiness for mobile learning integration among science and arts teachers from Bhimber district of AJK. It was a quantitative study and researchers used descriptive research design. The researcher used the Mobile Learning Readiness Survey (MLRS) developed by Christensen and Knezek (2017) for data collection about mobile learning integration readiness. The data were collected from 230 secondary school teachers. The collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test. The major finding of this study showed that the level of secondary school teachers’ mobile learning readiness was high. It was found that no significant difference exists between science and art teachers on their readiness for Mobile Learning. The study suggested the importance of providing training for teachers to gain the necessary knowledge and skills for effective mobile learning integration in classrooms.</p> Jahan Ara Shams, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning Wed, 27 Dec 2023 07:16:37 +0500 Perceptions of University Students about Online Teaching and Learning in Higher Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Sindh Province Pakistan <p>During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Sindh Province, Pakistan, the study looked at university students' perceptions of online teaching and learning in higher education. In order to do so, we looked at students' attitudes about online learning, their ability to absorb information, and their use of E-learning platforms. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to conduct an online survey. Data was obtained from 762 students from two universities in Sindh province. Expert opinions were used to appropriately validate the question. The findings of the study revealed that higher education institutions in Sindh Province were not ready to offer solely online courses. The most prominent concerns are technological issues, followed by teachers' lack of technical skills and badly suited instructional styles to the online setting. Students, on the other hand, attributed the last place to a lack of connection with professors or poor communication with them. The research implications for universities and researchers are examined in light of these findings.</p> Sakina Jumani, Zohran Jumani, Rehana Kausar, Shahnaz Jumani Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning Wed, 27 Dec 2023 07:45:04 +0500