International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning <p>The aim of the Research journal is to promote research activities and provide original, relevant, and timely information in different fields of distance education and e-learning education. It will focus on the use of the latest media/ technologies in distance learning and the implementation and integration of new technologies in distance teaching-learning. The journal is available to all practitioners and researchers who are interested in publishing their research work in Distance Education and E-Learning.</p> International Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistan en-US International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2520-7156 <p>© By Department of Education (Directorate of Distance Education) International Islamic University Islamabad. IJDEEL by International Islamic University Islamabad is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. Based on a work at; All articles published by IJDEEL are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial 4.0 International License . This permits anyone to copy, redistribute, transmit and adapt the work provided the original work and source is appropriately cited as specified by the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.</p> Metaphoric Perceptions of Adolescents towards the Concept of Corona Virus (COVID-19) <p>This research was carried out to examine the metaphoric perceptions of adolescents regarding the concept of coronavirus (COVID-19).For this purpose, 60 adolescents (33 girls, 27 boys) studying at different grade levels of three high schools at different socio-economic levels determined by maximum diversity sampling from high schools in Erzincan city center were included in the research.With the questionnaireform developed for adolescents, “Coronavirus (COVID-19) ……is similar. Because………." was asked.The data obtained were analyzed by content analysis method. In this context, categories suitable for metaphors were created and the consistency of the categories with metaphors and descriptions was determined. Eight metaphors that are not suitable for the subject of the study are excluded from the study. In line with the results obtained, it was determined that adolescents developed 49 different metaphors and these metaphors were collected under eight categories. It can be said that the metaphoric perceptions of adolescents regarding the concept of coronavirus (COVID-19) are generally negative.</p> Fatih Aydoğdu Figen Gürsoy Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2022-01-04 2022-01-04 7 1 01 11 10.36261/ijdeel.v7i1.2222 Learning Loss: A Real Threat in Education for Underprivileged Students and Remote Regions during the Covid-19 Pandemic <p>This study aims to describe the real threat of learning loss for underprivileged students and remote areas, due to school closures and distance learning in Riau Province, Indonesia. On the other hand, keeping students safe from the dangers of the COVID-19 virus is the main factor. Distance learning is a solution to this dilemma, but it is very difficult for underprivileged students and remote regions to implement, because: 1) Students have never used various educational technology platforms in distance learning 2) Do not have a smartphone and mobile data plans 3) Internet signal in remote areas is not good for distance learning. The results of this study describe, when distance learning was first implemented, as many as 75 % of 206 underprivileged students and ten schools experienced difficulties when using educational technology platforms for distance learning. However, after two years, there has been an increase in the participation of underprivileged students in distance learning. In addition, it has become a habit, subsidized mobile data plans from the government, adaptive curricula and variations in learning methods when distance learning, have become important factor in increasing the participation of underprivileged students and remote regions.</p> Anju Nofarof Hasudungan Ofianto Tri Zahra Ningsih Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2022-01-04 2022-01-04 7 1 12 23 10.36261/ijdeel.v7i1.2223 Development and Validation of Digital Literacy Scale (DLS) and its Implication for Higher Education <p>The study aimes to develop and validate Digital Literacy Scale (DLS) based on Chen’s (2015) theoretical framework which includes nine dimensions: communication, collaboration, critical thinking, creativity, citizenship, character, curation, copyright, and connectedness. A question pool consisting of 62 items based on the nine dimensions of digital literacy was generated on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Content validity of the question pool was sought from experts in terms of clarity of items, language understanding, and relevance. SPSS and AMOS were used for statistical analysis. Using a sample of 349 university students, Exploratory Factor Analysis was employed for reliability analysis, construct validation, and factor structure of the scale. EFA confirms the nine dimensions; however, some items were deleted during this process. Finally, Confirmatory Factor Analysis was employed to check the reliability and validity of the factor structure by using a second sample (n=442). CFA showed that all the values were within the acceptable range (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin 0.886, the total variance explained 62.87%, Cronbach Alpha 0.894, and the goodness of fit 0.924). Thus a standardized DLS consisting of 36 items and 9 factors (communication, copyright, critical thinking, character, citizenship, curation, connectedness, creativity, and collaboration) was finalized. DLS is a psychometrically sound, reliable, and valid measurement tool that can be used to measure digital literacy.</p> Hina Amin Muhammad Abid Malik Bulent Akkaya Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2022-01-04 2022-01-04 7 1 24 43 10.36261/ijdeel.v7i1.2224 Exploring Learning Avenues Amidst Pandemic and Future Prospects in Higher Education <p>Globally, teaching-learning has been in a severe transition due to COVID-19. Amid pandemic, education in universities had to shift from physical boundaries to online mode. The purpose of the study was to examine online learning mode particularly with respect to learner’s readiness, their involvement, fair assessment and satisfaction at university level. The objectives of the study were; to explore the perceived level of readiness of students for online learning, find out their involvement and participation in online mode while performing various educational tasks; to explore to what extent online assessment is fair, and finally to determine satisfaction of students of online learning experiences during COVID-19 era. The sample of the study was drawn from all social sciences departments. The questionnaire’s link was disseminated to 550 students and 293 respondents filled out the google form. Learners’ readiness was divided into three subfactors, namely, physical &amp; environmental factors, learners’ personal skills and learners’ familiarity with necessary apps and websites. The inferences drawn from the study showed that although majority of students were equipped with devices yet they were not possessing good skills required for virtual learning. The online conditions and environment were not contributing positively in favour of learners’ readiness and also learners were not well aware of apps &amp; websites required for online learning. Moreover, students remained passive during online classes and were found less interested in completion of the assigned tasks. The online assessment had been embedded with manifold flaws that further multiplied unfairness in education. Although, the study informs overall satisfaction of learners which found to be low for addressing the issues, it is recommended that educational institutions may continue to offer hybrid mode of learning even in post-pandemic era for continuously equipping both students and teachers with requisite skills, relevant apps and software necessary for making learning teaching process smooth in future. In addition, it is recommended that higher educational institutions and relevant authorities should design software to improve involvement of the students while keeping the assessments as fair as possible during online learning.</p> Muhammad Shahid Muhammad Uzair-ul-Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2022-01-04 2022-01-04 7 1 44 60 10.36261/ijdeel.v7i1.2225 Blended Learning: Past and Present with Special Reference to COVID-19 Pandemic <p>The Clayton Christensen academy describes blended learning as a structured educational program in which a student learns at least in part into internet-based content delivery and training with some characteristic of academic supervision from home. This process involved time, place, pattern, and careful monitoring facilities. It also encouraged the learners to feel more optimistic regarding their studies. The fundamental concept of driving blended learning is that it encourages a combination of self-learning and collective communication-oriented practices. However, during COVID-19 besides virtual and non-formal institutions, the formal educational institutes also moved to blended learning. As this was a new practice for the formal instructors and learners, therefore, this study was carried out for discovering the concept of blended learning with special reference to COVID-19 pandemic and for this reason three sub purposes were; shed light on the concept of blended learning; to describe terminologies used for blended learning in the past and present with special reference to COVID-19 pandemic and to discover blended learning strategies in the past and presnt with special reference to COVID-19. This study chartered a qualitative method with succeeding in the analysis of documents related to blended learning and how this strategy was used during COVID -19 for engaging the formal instructors with their students. The Study followed the five years documents available online since 2011-20. But some documents from 2021 were also viewed for methodology.The researchers’ inquiry into 10 years of data was for the purpose to discover the past strategies of blended learning in comparison to the strategies used during COVID-19. Data were analyzed through emerging themes from the documents. Therefore, the main themes aided to interpret the results. The results exposed dissimilar terms for blended learning such as F2F, hybrid, and the online teaching-learning process.The strategies used during COVID-19 were more advanced as compared to the past years. Traditional methods of blended learning included online sessions and face-to-face classes. Microsoft, Webinar, TREAD, zoom, and Google Classroom, and other applications have been commonly used throughout the COVID-19 affected countries. The formal institutions for the teaching-learning process to carry out in COVID-19 period frequently practiced some new strategies.</p> Aisha Shams Akhunzada Isharat Siddiqua Lodhy Parveen Munshi Sakina Jumani Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2022-01-04 2022-01-04 7 1 61 70 10.36261/ijdeel.v7i1.2226 Investigation of Students’ Satisfaction about H5P Interactive Video on MOODLE for Online Learning <p>Open universities play an important role in delivering distant learning education to the general public. MOODLE is an open-source programme that enables and maintains the success of open universities. One of the main concerns of teachers when using internet content is the students' interest, particularly when using recorded videos because synchronous interactive instruction is not possible for big groups of students online. In an e-learning system, interactive videos are crucial because they allow learners to interact with learning content while watching the video. The H5P module of MOODLE Learning Management System (LMS), was used to generate an interactive film in this empirical study. The focus of the study was to investigate students’ satisfaction about interactive video content on MOODLE in online learning. It was assessed by using the Delone and Mclean Information Systems Success Model. H5P interactive video content was developed and implemented on MOODLE and satisfaction of students was measured. The findings revealed that the value of video for learning effectiveness is depending on the level of interactivity. Students in the e-learning class with interactive video had much higher levels of satisfaction than students in other settings.</p> Kamran Mir Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Jahan Ara Shams Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2022-01-04 2022-01-04 7 1 71 82 10.36261/ijdeel.v7i1.2228 Effectiveness of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on the Student’s Academic Achievement at University Level <p>The focus of this research is &nbsp;to explore the impact of ICT on students’ academic achievement.In this research study two university, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi Pakistan (PMAS_AAUR) and Fatima Jinnah Women University Pakistan (FJWU) were selected Students from both male and female gender selected with multistage random sampling techniques. There 100 sample sizes of students and 30 sample of teacher were selected. A questionnaire was used as tool of research.&nbsp; This instrument was validated by the panel of experts. Internal consistency coefficient (using Cronbach Alpha) was used to check the reliability and its value was 0.951. The researcher herself collected the data conducting a survey technique. The researcher herself collected the completed questionnaires. After the interview the collected data of information were coded and analyzed with the help of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The paired t-test, frequency and percentage were applied for comparison of the study.</p> Ume Rubab Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2022-01-04 2022-01-04 7 1 83 96 10.36261/ijdeel.v7i1.2230