International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning <p>The aim of the Research journal is to promote research activities and provide original, relevant and timely information in different fields of distance education and e learning education. It will focus on the use of latest media/ technologies in distance learning and implementation and integration of new technologies in distance teaching learning. The journal is available to all practitioners and researchers who are interested in publishing their research work in Distance Education and E-Learning.</p> International Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistan en-US International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2520-7156 <p>© By Department of Education (Directorate of Distance Education) International Islamic University Islamabad. IJDEEL by International Islamic University Islamabad is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. Based on a work at; All articles published by IJDEEL are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial 4.0 International License . This permits anyone to copy, redistribute, transmit and adapt the work provided the original work and source is appropriately cited as specified by the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.</p> Employment Creation and Extreme Poverty Eradication through Open and Distance eLearning and Technical-Vocational Education and Training in Zimbabwe <p>This study explored how Open and Distance eLearning (ODeL) system is enhancing employment creation and extreme poverty eradication in Zimbabwe. Poverty is a challenge in developing countries in the presence of unemployment and lack of education. This study aimed to put into perspective the strides made by ODeL institutions in Zimbabwe towards extreme poverty eradication through TVET in the education system. Data were collected from purposively selected 20 ODeL graduates including; entrepreneurs, street vendors, and individuals, formally and informally employed, by using interviews and observation, in this case study. The study employed thematic analysis for the narrative qualitative data. The study revealed that poverty can be reduced through skills empowerment to learners at all educational levels. Exposure to a bouquet of vocational subjects in technical-vocational institutions has enabled entrepreneurs to create employment, applying acquired skills. The major barriers to effective entrepreneurship and employment creation were the scarcity of resources and natural disasters. The study is also significant that educational planners and policy-makers may formulate policies that encourage school and college graduates to be innovative, self-reliant, and may guard against extreme poverty in their communities. It can be concluded that possession and application of vocational skills may create employment and eradicate extreme poverty. It is, therefore, recommended that TVET starts early in life for innovativeness and effective use of available resources. Further research could be carried out on the nature of programmes in learning institutions that empower learners with skills for employment creation, sustainable development, and extreme poverty eradication.</p> Betty Kutukwa Mutambanengwe Ignatius Isaac Dambudzo Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 6 2 1 14 10.36261/ijdeel.v6i2.1854 Online Learning Engagement Model for International Students in Indonesia amid Covid-19 Period: A Conceptual Model Proposal <p>Universities in Indonesia implemented online learning following the command by the government as among the ways to mitigate the Covid-19 infections. However, fully online learning is a new experience for most educators and students including international students in Indonesia. Little is known about factors influencing online learning engagement, particularly in relation to international students. Therefore, this study proposes a conceptual model of online learning engagement based on literature review. Thus, method used is reviewing previous studies obtained from various academic journals which discussed the concept of student engagement and its related factors. The results of literature analysis indicate that student engagement is a crucial factor towards student academic and nonacademic success. Also, findings from analysis indicate that, learner engagement is influenced by a number of factors such as institutional support, instructor interactivity, student motivation, and learning material interactivity. Finally, the conceptual model of online learning engagement is proposed based on previous empirical studies. Recommendation for future studies is also discussed.</p> Mussa Saidi Abubakari Mashoedah Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 6 2 15 30 10.36261/ijdeel.v6i2.1859 Cognitive Flexibility, Procrastination, and Need for Closure Predict Online Self-Directed Learning Among Pakistani Virtual University Students <p>This study investigated the relationship between students’ self-directed online learning and their everyday psychological factors often associated with learning in general.Total 140 Virtual University students in Pakistan completed measures of online self-directed learning and psychological factors, including cognitive flexibility, procrastination, and need for closure.&nbsp; Regression analyses indicated that the less students procrastinate in general, the more students embraced cognitive flexibility, and the less they impulsively sought quick solutions, the more likely they reported effective online self-directed learning.&nbsp; In contrast, younger students, had a need for quick answers, procrastinate in general, and who embraced cognitive flexibility, were more likely to report ineffective online self-directed learning.The results suggest that students may be given training on how to avoid procrastination. Students need for closure can be eased by quizzes throughout the semester and students may be taught alternatives for encouraging cognitive flexibility.</p> Itbar Khan Marlene Schommer-Aikins Nazia Saeed Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 6 2 31 41 10.36261/ijdeel.v6i2.1860 A Study of Evaluation Methods of Teaching Practice of Distance Teacher Education Institutions <p>This study was aimed to investigate evaluation methods of teaching practice of distance teacher education institutions in Pakistan. Major objectives of the study were: to examine the evaluation methods of teaching practice used in distance teacher education institutions; to analyze the effectiveness of teaching practice at distance teacher education institutions; and to find out the problems/weaknesses in evaluation of teaching practice in these institutions. The population was consisted of all the supervisors of distance teacher education institution offering teacher education programmes. Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad in Pakistan is example of distance education. Two questionnaires were developed on the basis of related literature for prospective teachers and supervisors to get the responses. The data were collected by administering the validated questionnaires. Randomly 200 respondents were selected. The data were analyzed and interpreted by using percentages and two-way chi-square square techniques. Inferred results were discussed and reported. The major conclusions of the study were that the prospective teachers of distance teacher education institutions are not very satisfied with the duration of teaching practice. Some of the recommendations are that there is a need to put in place a continuous system of monitoring and evaluation of teaching practice including observations of prospective teachers for distance teacher education institutions. The time period of teaching practice may be increased. Self-evaluation of prospective teachers may be included in the evaluation of teaching practice.</p> Fouzia Younas Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 6 2 42 56 10.36261/ijdeel.v6i2.1861 An Analysis of Students’ Perception About Instructional Practices at Post Graduate Level of Allama Iqbal Open University <p>Instructional practices are one of the fast-changing factors of teaching and learning in today’s fast technological development era. These are instructional practices which provide opportunity for better learning and effective relevant material to the learners. The purpose of this study was to analyze the students’ perception about instructional practices at post graduate level of Allama Iqbal Open University. This study was descriptive in nature and conducted by using survey with mixed-method approach as well as sequential exploratory design. Focused group discussion (N=12) was conducted during workshop with students’ consent. On the basis of focus group discussion, a questionnaire (26 items) was developed on five-point Likert Scale to find out students’ perceptions. Content validity was checked through experts’ opinion. Sample of N=802 were selected of MPhil and PhD students enrolled at Allama Iqbal Open University in all faculties i.e. Faculty of Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Faculty of Arabic and Islamic Studies, Faculty of Education using convenient sampling technique. Survey was conducted to collect the data. Data was analyzed by using statistical techniques of percentage, mean score, t-test, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). The findings of the study highlighted the importance of instructional practices for open distance learners. Students’ perception regarding instructional practices was towards agreement (M=4.0). Students of faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities were found more satisfied as compared to the students of other faculties about instructional practices. The study led to the recommendations regarding instructional practices in different contexts and disciplines across all programs and faculties.</p> Farzana Sardar Muhammad Ajmal Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 6 2 57 73 10.36261/ijdeel.v6i2.1862 The Degree of Relationships and Differences Among Level of ICT Utilization in Instruction and Lectures’ Demographic Factors in Selected Universities of Pakistan <p>The ICT (Information &amp; Communications Technology) utilization in instruction among university and college lecturers is gaining prominence in many countries in the world, including Pakistan, for the purpose of globalization and enhancing the quality of instruction and learning.&nbsp; The purpose of the study was to examine the benefits of ICT utilization, the extent of success factors, problems and constraints encountered in ICT utilization in instruction among lecturers in universities of Islamabad. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was used to find out the level and extent of ICT utilization in universities of Islamabad. The sample from the study consisted of 260 lecturers drawn from the 14 universities of Islamabad. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics such as Pearson correlation, and chi square. Results of the study showed that there were significant relationships among the 14 areas of ICT utilization, significant relationships between ICT utilization and lecturers’ characteristics, and significant relationships between ICT utilization and university demography. There were positive correlations between ICT utilization and some demographics such as lecturers’ age, working experience, experience in computer use, frequency of ICT use, computer use at home, ICT training duration, extent of ICT knowledge, awareness of ICT and ICT written / published in university. The findings of this study could be used for improving instruction among lecturers and for designing a training model for instruction among lecturers in the pursuit of enhancing excellence and quality of education in universities.&nbsp; This study was subjected to several limitations that include online assessment, incorporating audio video conferencing tools, giving more sophistication to educational management software.&nbsp;</p> Shahbaz Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 6 2 74 84 10.36261/ijdeel.v6i2.1863 A Proposed Model of Legal Remedies to Manage Human Resource Issue: A Case Study of an Open University <p>Universities are investing their precious resources to manage legal issues. When a conflict arises between the management and employees at the workplace they prefer to go to court and not rely on trust the internal mechanism to resolve the issues which leads to wastage of financial resources, misuse of the potential energy of the employee as well as employers and damage organizational work environment. The main purpose of the present study was to explore the existing model of legal issues regarding human resource management and propose a sustainable model to overcome the issues for efficient utilization of resources. The data were collected through primary and secondary sources. First, documents were carefully analyzed and legal files were reviewed. After it, semi-structured interviews were taken of the legal advisors, legal managers and human resource manager of the open distance learning University. Data were analyzed through NVivo software. Presently, universities have various committees and syndicate/executive council is the appellate body against the decisions of the committees. Most employees prefer to go to the courts as a legal remedy to find relief.&nbsp; Whereas the proposed model which has the following three components 1) Nature of the Issue 2) Procedure to Resolve the Issue and 3) Enforcement of the Decision of the Council.&nbsp; Courts will take only cases on the question(s) of law.</p> Tahira Bibi Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 6 2 85 99 10.36261/ijdeel.v6i2.1864 Contemporary Trends in Quality Assurance in Distance Education <p>With the emergence of day-by-day increasing distance learning institutions worldwide, the question of quality assurance (QA) in distance education (DE) needs to be addressed at appropriate level. The objective of this paper was to examine various QA practices undertaken by several QA regulatory bodies and existing models in distance and online education being followed globally. The researcher undertook extensive review of related literature pertaining to QA practices worldwide to reach at a common ground that how a DE institution be dealt in relation to its QA needs. &nbsp;The paper highlighted that prevailing QA models in distance and online learning have been developed in response to specific demands of stakeholders to ensure transparency and improved attention towards learning outcomes, that means a single model is not likely to fulfil the needs of all stakeholders. The paper also emphasised that it will neither be appropriate nor admissible to prefer and recommend one system of QA to another since the selection mostly depends on the efficacy and relevance of model to the specific needs, aims and maturity of educational institutions. In addition, the paper provided a comparative review of research on the effectiveness of QA practices in DE.&nbsp; Some recent studies reviewed in this paper highlighted the similar nature of benchmarks or dimensions for an external QA system for distance and online programs with minor variations on account of institutional local needs. However, due to technological developments external QA instruments may need revision to deal current standards and best practices.</p> Shahzada Masoud ul Hassan Bukhari Nazir Haider Shah Manzoor Hussain Arif Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 6 2 100 108 10.36261/ijdeel.v6i2.1865 A Blended E-Learning Topology in an ODL Environment: A Case Study of AIOU <p>The working ecology of the distance learning has been transformed in a revolutionary manner after the rapid advancement in the Information and Communication Technologies. The traditional distance education has now gained the shape of online learning or e-learning after the advent of these ICTS, bringing so many challenges and more competitive environment for distant learning institutions. This research study has been conducted to propose a blended e-learning topology in a localized environment of an open and distance learning institute. The case study of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) has been taken. The model consists of development of small re-useable learning objects, delivery of course instructions to distant learners, communication between student and teacher, classroom-based teaching, course assignment, and final examination. The proposed model has been implemented in AIOU for a selected computer science course. The result of the students in the final examination show that the performance of the students enrolled in blended e-learning mode of content delivery has been improved when compared to students of same level enrolled in traditional mode of education. The male and female proportion of respondents was also appropriate. The students also showed strong preference for using blended e-learning model.</p> Moiz Uddin Ahmed Shahid Hussain Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 6 2 109 120 10.36261/ijdeel.v6i2.1866 Cultural Barriers and Gender Differences: A Qualitative Study of Issues Associated with Online Education in Pakistan <p>COVID-19 has emerged as a disaster for people around the globe. Consequently, it has changed the way we live and do things in our everyday lives. This study analyzes the experiences of online education of university students during COVID-19 pandemic. It further explores the ways in which gender effects the online education of the students. The study was conducted in four conveniently selected universities of Lahore, Punjab. In-depths interviews were conducted with 16 research participants and data were analyzed by employing thematic analysis approach. The study found that students, particularly females, were facing loads of hurdles in attending online classes, including non-availability or frequent disconnection of internet, electricity load shading, lack of knowledge about using technology for online education, and time management. This study not only presents lived experiences of students but also suggests some constructive measures to address and curtail the challenges that are being faced by students during online education.</p> Amara Ikram Farhan Navid Yousaf Rizwan Safdar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 6 2 121 130 10.36261/ijdeel.v6i2.1867 COVID-19 Pandemic and University Teachers’ Experiences about Challenges of Online Teaching: A Phenomenography Approach <p>With the advent of current Corona pandemic /COVID-19, the universities around the world were closed for face -to- face education. In the pandemic crisis, universities had to transform teaching- learning milieus instantly and online teaching went viral at universities. This transition from on campus to online education delivery services affected university teachers in many ways. By applying phenomenography approach, the present paper examines university teachers’ perceptions about the challenges they faced in Pakistani context, university teachers’ re-action towards university decision about the overnight teaching paradigm shift from face-to- face to online teaching, institutional support to teachers for online teaching; students’ caliber for online learning,&nbsp;&nbsp; and to assemble university teachers’ opinion about the pre- requisites of online teaching. The data was collected through written answers to open- ended research questions. Interpretative phenomenography analysis (IPA) framework was used to extract finding from the text data.&nbsp; The major findings emerged that mostly university teachers accepted the transition of teaching paradigm however some were under stressed for the online teaching. The training provided to teachers was not sufficient to meet actual requirements of online teaching. Teachers realized that universities did not have up-graded relevant infrastructure required for online education.&nbsp; Teachers perceived that mostly students did have the caliber to learn online moreover many students who were living in the remote areas did not have resources to get benefit from online classes. There was common consensus among university teachers that before launching online educational programs all pre- requisites of online education may be fulfilled at satisfactory level to achieve the targets.</p> Sufiana Khatoon Nasreen Akhter Nadeem Talib Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 6 2 131 146 10.36261/ijdeel.v6i2.1868