Image of India and Pakistan in Digital Age: A Comparative Study on Tweets of International News Agencies

  • Muhammad Riaz Raza Bahria University, Islamabad
  • Syed Abdul Siraj Bahria University, Islamabad
  • Muhammad Usman Saeed University of Central Punjab, Lahore


Pakistan and India are two important South Asian neighboring countries equipped with nuclear capabilities. Unfortunately, the checkered bilateral foreign relations history is hostile and both countries have been fought four conventional wars since 1947. Mass media plays a significant role in shaping international relations and it is considered important to study the image of nations and states to assess international standing of a nation. In present study, we explored and compare the image of Pakistan and India in the representation of tweets of international news agencies. Methodologically, we used content analysis and network analysis techniques to find out the country-issue networks in news tweets. We have designated tweets of four major news agencies;
Reuters, Agence France Press, Associated Press and Xinhua related to Pakistan and India for the duration of 7 years (from 2010-2016). We found that India and Pakistan are being covered negatively in news tweets of these news agencies. However, Pakistan’s image seems more negative through lens of international news agencies as compare to India in terms of peace and conflict issues coverage. Both countries should take steps and formulate vibrant policy towards creation and dissemination of their positive image on digital media. 

Author Biographies

Muhammad Riaz Raza, Bahria University, Islamabad

Assistant Professor

Syed Abdul Siraj, Bahria University, Islamabad

Senior Professor

Muhammad Usman Saeed, University of Central Punjab, Lahore

Ph.D. Scholar